Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Cognitive Functions Lateralization...

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Chapter 14: Cognitive Functions
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2 Lateralization of Function Each hemisphere specialized for different functions Each hemisphere controls contralateral side of body
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4 Fig. 14-3a, p. 419
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5 Lateralization of Function Damage to corpus callosum interferes with exchange of information
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6
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7 Lateralization of Function Corpus callosum matures through first 5 to 10 years Young children have difficulty comparing information from left and right hand Incomplete development of corpus callosum increases development of anterior and hippocampal commisures
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8 Lateralization of Function Epilepsy Repeated excessive synchronized neural activity Decreased release of GABA Physicians cut corpus callosum to prevent seizure from spreading to opposite hemisphere Split-brain patients
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9 Lateralization of Function Determining hemispheric dominance Sodium amytal (Wada) test Anesthetize one hemisphere and check language function Dichotic listening Report more digits heard by dominant half Functional brain imaging f MRI or PET
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10 Lateralization of Function Handedness and Hemispheric Dominance Dextrals: right-handers Sinestrals: left-handers Left-hemisphere dominant in almost all dextrals (92%) and most sinestrals (69%) Females may be less lateralized
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11 Lateralization of Function Spit brain patients Normal intellect and motivation Use hands independently in a way others cannot Respond differently to stimuli presented to only one side of the body
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13 Lateralization of Function Immediately after surgery, each hemisphere responds quickly and accurately only to information presented directly Brain learns use smaller connections Difficulty integrating information remains
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14 Lateralization of Function Emotions Right hemisphere better Damage to parts of right hemisphere causes difficulty perceiving other’s emotions, failure to understand humor and sarcasm, and monotone voice Left hemisphere damage increases ability to accurately judge emotion Decreased left hemisphere interference
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15 Lateralization of Function Right hemisphere better at spatial relationships Left hemisphere generally focuses on visual details, right hemisphere focuses more on visual patterns
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17 Lateralization of Function Language Damage to left hemisphere often results in language deficiencies Left side may be specialized for language from birth Planum temporale asymmetry seems related to language function
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18 Lateralization of Function
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19 Lateralization of Function
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