Review - Movement Science Motor Control Exam Review 1...

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Movement Science – Motor Control Exam Review 1. Motor Control : The study of how the body moves or is stabilized in space. 2. Contributions from : a. Galvani - Test on frogs, noticed that electricity applied to frog stimulated twitching. b. Santiago y Cajal - NEURON DOCTRINE: Gaps b/w neurons, identifies neuron as signal to brain. c. Korbinian Brodmann - 53 different functional areas of cerebral cortex based on cytoarchitectonics : nerve/neuron structure d. Sir Charles Sherrington : “synapse” and “proprioception” – “final common pathway”- spinal cord, all info to brain goes through spinal cord. 3. Motor Behavior and Physiological Techniques a. RT : Simple reaction time – commonly used to show timeframe to respond to stimulus b. EMG : Electromyography – Force plates that sense movement of force plates, which muscles are activated to remain balance, and order of muscle activation c. I-RCR : Infrared-corneal reflection – amplitude, velocity, & acceleration of eye movements. d. fMRI : functional magnetic resonance imaging- neurons require oxygen, oxygen transfers through blood, measures blood flow e. EEG : Electrocephalography- senses electrical neural activity; weak signal because of hair, skull, bones, neurons, etc. Many trials must be collected and averaged. f. ICMS : Intra-cortial Microstimulation- first teach an animal a task, then put microelectrode in various parts of its brain to sense electrical activity. g. TMS : Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation- sends magnetic pulse to certain areas of brain, observe reaction to deficits. 4. CNS vs. PNS a. CNS : The brain and spinal cord, spinal cord connects to PNS b. PNS: Neurons and glia that are not entirely contained w/in the brain or spinal cord c.
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