psyc_aug291 - Wednesday The correlation coefficient(r...

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Wednesday August 29, 2007 The correlation coefficient (r) varies from -1 to +1. The sign tells you the direction of the association. Magnitude indicates the strength (expressed as an absolute value). Descriptive Studies Naturalistic Observations : Observations made of humans or animals in their natural environment. Pros/Cons: Observed behavior is probably more accurate than in a lab. However, observers tend to be more prone to expectations and biases. In addition, it makes it difficult to apply observations to other situations and people. Case Studies : Description and analysis of a person or a group of people. Pros/Cons: Case studies can provide very detailed information. However, it can hold difficulty for making conclusions based on a single case, and can be time-consuming or expensive. Distortions in self-report data (like questionnaires and interviews) Acquiescence bias: people tend to say “yes” Social desirability bias: people tend to want to look better to the interviewer Sampling bias Placebo effect
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