Federal Regulations Pure Food and Drug Act Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch program State and local regulation of medication Controls substances not overseen by the federal government; must conform to federal legislation Follow state rules, you'll follow local Health care institutions and medication laws Individual policies to meet federal, state, and local regulations Medication regulations and nursing practice Nurse Practice Acts: exists to protect public from getting pills/meds from unlicensed professionals. Put stuff out there on how to handle certain medications Chemical name Provides the exact description of medication's composition Generic name The manufacturer who first develops the drug assigns the name and it is then listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia Trade name Also known as brand or proprietary name. This is the name under which a manufacturer markets the medication Classificaiton
Effect of medication on body system. Symptoms the medication relieves. Medication's desired effect Medication forms Solid, liquid, other oral forms; topical, parenteral; forms for instillation into body cavities Phamacokinetics Study of how medications enter the body, are absorbed and distributed into cells, tissues, or organs, reach their site of action, alter physiological functions, are metabolized, exit the body. Absorption Passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration. Factors that influence absorption Route of administration, ability of a medication to dissolve (other meds could impair, coating of pill, lining of intestines) Blood flow to the site of administration (more flow, more absorption) Body surface area (more body surface could increase absorption) Lipid solubility Distribution After absorption, distribution occurs within the body to tissues, organs, and specific sites of action Distribution depends on Physical and chemical properties of the medication Physiology of the person taking it (circulation, membrane permeability, protein binding). Blood brain barrier can affect this too as well as the placental barrier.
Metabolism Medications are metabolized into a less-potent or an inactive form. Biotransformation occurs under the influence of enzymes that detoxify, break down, and remove active chemicals. Most biotransformation occurs in the liver.
- Fall '19
- Kathy Knobloch