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Health and wellness for life / Human Kinetics.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-6850-5 (soft cover)
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E4039 5 Contents
What You’ll Find in This Book
What You’ll Find Online CHAPTER 1 Health Promotion
Health and Wellness
Benefits and Guidelines
Theories and Models of Behavior Modification
Health Promotion 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 2 Fitness Basics
Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Being Active in College
Fitness Basics 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 3 Nutrition
Digestion, From Beginning to End 6 Eating a Balanced Diet
Nutrition for Special Populations
References and Resources CHAPTER 4 Weight Management
How Did We Get Here?
Basic Regulation of Eating and Body Weight
Ways to Assess Weight and Fatness
Health Effects of Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight
Causes of Overweight, Obesity, and underweight
Embracing a Healthy Weight Management Lifestyle
Dieting in the United States
Critical Moments for Weight Management
Managing Too Little Body Weight (Underweight)
Changing the Obesogenic Environment
Weight Management 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 5 Mental Health
Young Adults and Mental Health
History and Stigma
Treatment Methods Over Time
What Determines Mental Health?
Diagnosing Mental Illness 7 Treatment Modalities
Mental Health Professionals
Mental Health 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 6 Stress Management
Types of Stress
Types of Stressors
Effects of Stress on Body Systems
Stress and Disease
Stress Management Techniques
Negative Coping Techniques
Stress Management 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 7 Intimacy and Sexuality
Life Span of Sexual Development
Stimulation and Climax
Spectrum of Sexuality
Ability and Sexuality
Intimacy and Sexuality 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 8 Reproductive Choices
8 Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy
Choosing a Birth Control Method
Protection Against Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections
Protection Against Pregnancy Only
Reproductive Choices 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 9 Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth
Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy
Conception and Implantation
Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 10 Infectious Diseases
Chain of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Causes of Infectious Diseases
Your Body’s Defenses
Common Infectious Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Infections
How to Protect Yourself
Infectious Diseases 101
Glossary 9 References and Resources CHAPTER 11 Chronic Diseases
Chronic Diseases 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 12 Health Care Consumerism
Finding the Right Health Insurance Plan
Choosing a Doctor
Identifying Reliable Information
Being Your Own Health Care Advocate
Reading Medicine Labels
Complementary Alternative Medicine and Alternative Medicine
Health Care Consumerism 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 13 Environmental Health
Environment and Public Health
Diseases and Disorders
Environmental Health 101
Application Activities 10 Glossary
References and Resources CHAPTER 14 Substance Abuse and Dependency
Scope of the Problem
Who Will Become Abusers?
Types of Drugs
Abuse and Dependency at Different Stages of Life
Substance Abuse and Dependency 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 15 Healthy Aging
More People Are Living Longer
Body System Changes During Aging
Managing the Changes of Aging
Healthy Aging 101
References and Resources CHAPTER 16 Wellness Throughout Life
Changes in Health and Wellness Over Time
Six Dimensions of Wellness
Factors That Influence Wellness
Reaching and Maintaining Wellness
Wellness Throughout Life 101
References and Resources 11 Preface
If I knew I was going to live this long, I would have taken better care of
—attributed to Mickey Mantle (and others)
If you’re like many college students, you’re enjoying independence, self-exploration,
meeting new friends, and experiencing new things. You might be on your own for the
first time in your life, making your own lifestyle choices. It is now, during these years
of growth and maturation, that your health habits, whether good or bad, are established
and sometimes carried well into adulthood. And, like Mickey Mantle, you’re probably
not thinking about the long-term effects of the decisions you’re making. This book will
help you make informed decisions regarding your health and wellness. The decisions
are yours, but we provide you with the best information available to help you.
People are living longer and healthier than ever before in history. Increases in life
span and quality of life are due to many medical breakthroughs, countless research
studies, and an increase in health literacy. In an article that received considerable
attention from federal, state, and local public health officials, McGinnis and Foege
(1993) argued that the real causes of death are related to behavior or the environment.
The shift in public health from prevention of infectious disease to prevention of chronic
disease eventually funneled down to the health education curriculum being taught in
schools. State and federal government mandates the prevention-based education that is
in schools today.
In Healthy People 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines
health literacy as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process,
and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health
decisions” (National Network of Libraries of Medicine 2008). Health literacy is
important so that you can learn how to communicate with your doctors, read and
interpret health literature, and have the skills to manage your health and prevent disease.
The importance of Health and Wellness for Life establishes the relationship between
learning and doing. Scenarios, examples, tips, and recommendations apply to your
world and bridge the gap between learning about health and applying it to your
everyday life. The textbook features a conversational tone and includes questions for
assessment, review, and discussion; learning objectives; activities; and sidebars on
topics in the news and culture to help you understand what you read and retain what you
learn. Special focus is given to timely and controversial issues, encouraging you to think
critically about media and advertising. Special elements on steps for behavioral change
and the mind–body connection also show you how to take action to address health
issues to improve mental and physical health.
As the scientific links between environment and health become stronger, awareness 12 of how lifestyle choices affect health is more important than ever before. Health and
Wellness for Life provides you with the tools to increase your health literacy and make
educated decisions about your health now and in the future. 13 What You’ll Find in This Book
The 16 chapters in Health and Wellness for Life cover a broad range of topics to help
you make informed choices about your health and wellness.
Chapter 1, Health Promotion, explains the difference between health and wellness,
the six dimensions of wellness, and the many components of fitness. It also looks at the
promotion of health, wellness, and fitness in the United States. It shows you how to set
goals to establish or improve healthy behaviors and helps you understand how and why
we might make (or don’t make) changes in our lifestyles.
Chapter 2, Fitness Basics, explores health-related fitness—the ability of your body to
carry out everyday activities—and its five components: cardiorespiratory fitness,
muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. It also
delivers the practical information you need to stay physically active in college and
throughout your adult life.
In chapter 3, Nutrition, you’ll learn about the macronutrients (protein, fat,
carbohydrate, and water) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in the human diet
and how to determine the dietary guidelines you need for maintenance, growth, and
activity. The chapter also covers the safe handling of food to prevent foodborne
illnesses and the specific dietary needs of vegetarians, pregnant women, and other
Chapter 4, Weight Management, explains the nature and ramifications of the current
obesity epidemic in the United States. It can be challenging to maintain a healthy body
weight, but understanding the energy equation and applying it to your own behaviors is
a great place to start. This chapter shows you how to develop and implement solutions
for weight management that are effective, healthy, and long lasting.
When considering your health, don’t focus solely on the physical. As explained in
chapter 5, Mental Health, good mental health is important for your overall sense of
well-being and your ability to adapt, maintain balance, and manage difficult situations.
No one should let the stigma of mental illness prevent him or her from seeking
treatment when necessary. This chapter helps you learn to recognize and deal with the
signs and symptoms of mental illness in yourself or in others.
Chapter 6, Stress Management, teaches you how to handle the various kinds of stress
that come from work, school, family, and major life changes. Health risks associated
with stress can affect how well your body’s systems function, and stress can be a factor
in cancer, hypertension, and other diseases. Not everyone finds the same things to be
stressful or deals with stress the same way, but you can learn some simple, positive
management techniques such as meditation, muscle relaxation, and exercise.
Sexuality is a complex issue, dynamic and sometimes confusing. In chapter 7,
Intimacy and Sexuality, you’ll learn about the physical and psychological changes that
occur throughout life, as well as the many types of sexual expression that humans
engage in. The chapter also looks at issues involving behavior, orientation, and gender 14 identity. Learning to be comfortable with yourself is an important step in being a happy,
satisfied sexual being.
Chapter 8, Reproductive Choices, walks you through the many types of birth control.
Some, such as condoms and abstinence, protect against pregnancy and sexually
transmitted infections. Others—including several hormonal methods and barrier
methods—protect only against pregnancy. The chapter doesn’t recommend one method
over others or try to talk you into (or out of) anything. It simply presents the pros and
cons of reproductive choices so that you can decide which are best for you.
Chapter 9, Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth, examines the complex process by
which babies are conceived, develop, and are born, from the moment that a male’s
sperm penetrates the female’s ovum until the postpartum period that occurs in the weeks
after delivery. You’ll learn about the possible complications of pregnancy and the three
stages of labor, as well as methods of overcoming infertility.
Sometimes it can be difficult to stay healthy when everyone around you seems sick.
Chapter 10, Infectious Diseases, shows you that while germs might be everywhere, you
can take control of your behaviors and lifestyle choices to reduce your chance of
developing an infectious disease. You’ll learn about the major methods of transmission
and causes of infectious diseases; the management of risk factors; the components of
your immune system; and the causes, symptoms, and treatments of common infectious
Chapter 11, Chronic Diseases, explains how long-term diseases—such as
cardiovascular disease, lung disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease
—place burdens not only on the patients but also on society as a whole. Genetics plays a
role in your risk of developing a chronic disease, but the good news is that maintaining
a healthy lifestyle can be the best prevention strategy.
Do you know an HMO from a PPO? Have you thought much about your health care?
For many people, college is the time when they begin to make decisions about choosing
doctors, obtaining health insurance, paying for health care costs, and making choices
about prescriptions and over-the-counter medications. Chapter 12, Health Care
Consumerism, helps you learn how to make informed decisions about your health care.
It also covers common alternative care options, including acupuncture, chiropractic
medicine, massage, and herbal medicine.
Chapter 13, Environmental Health, looks at how our interactions with nature affect
our own health—how environmental factors may have an adverse effect on human
health or on the ecological balances that are essential to our long-term health and to the
quality of the environment. You’ll learn about ecosystems, climate change, and the
impact of toxins, pollution, and waste. You’ll get tips on going green and reducing your
personal waste, and you’ll learn about other ways to improve your environmental health
Chapter 14, Substance Abuse and Dependency, covers the harmful effects of alcohol,
tobacco, and drugs and the resources that are available for prevention and treatment. It 15 examines substances that are commonly abused, including cocaine, heroin, MDMA,
methamphetamine, and steroids. Substance abuse and dependency increase the risk for
developing adverse health effects, behavioral problems, and financial struggles.
Understanding the dynamics of abuse and dependency is the first step toward
management of the problem.
How old is old? The answer depends on whom you ask. Chapter 15, Healthy Aging,
describes how organs and body systems age, how people become more susceptible to
chronic diseases, and how everyone must make decisions about treatment and care
options in later years. Genetics plays a part in how you age and whether you’ll be more
susceptible to disease, but your lifestyle choices—such as exercising, healthy eating,
and social relationships—have an even greater impact.
Chapter 16, Wellness Throughout Life, shows you how maintaining your wellness
(not simply your health) is an essential part of living a healthy, happy, and productive
life. Health and wellness aren’t just goals to achieve but the results of a lifelong process.
In this chapter, you’ll learn the dimensions of wellness, the factors that influence health
and wellness, and how you can change your behaviors if necessary. 16 What You’ll Find Online
Health and Wellness for Life is part of the Health on Demand series, and you can learn
more about the series at . That Web site
also provides an online student resource (OSR) and an online study guide (OSG) that
complement the textbook. For each chapter in the book, the OSR offers several
extended discussions of relevant topics to help you expand your knowledge, as well as
links to other pertinent sites for further exploration. In the OSR, you’ll also find
glossaries of terms and definitions from the book, along with answers to the review
questions at the end of each chapter so that you can check your understanding of key
points. Additionally, the OSR has student activities that help you put the concepts you
are learning into practice. For each chapter in the book, the OSG provides a key terms
exercise, two activities to help you practice the skills you are learning, and an
interactive quiz to test your knowledge.
Your teacher might ask you to visit the OSR or the OSG and explore their topics in
conjunction with activities or assignments for chapters. You can also check out the
Health on Demand Web site on your own whenever you want to learn more about what
you’re reading. 17 References
McGinnis, J.M., and W.H. Foege. 1993. Actual causes of death in the United States.
Journal of the American Medical Association 270 (18): 2207-2212.
National Network of Libraries of Medicine. 2008. Health literacy.
. 18 CHAPTER 1 19 Health Promotion
Kelli O’Neil, MA, CSCS
University of Iowa 20 Assessment
• What are the six dimensions of wellness, and how can you attain them?
• Certain strategies can enhance the success of your behavior changes to pro...
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