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Unformatted text preview: 2 Converted to eBook by EasyEPUB Health On Demand 3 Health and Wellness for Life Human Kinetics Human Kinetics 4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Health and wellness for life / Human Kinetics. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-6850-5 (soft cover) ISBN-10: 0-7360-6850-3 (soft cover) 1. Health- -Textbooks. I. Human Kinetics (Organization) RA776.H43586 2009 613- - dc22 2008055673 ISBN-10: 0-7360-6850-3 (print) ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-6850-5 (print) Copyright © 2010 by Human Kinetics, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. The Web addresses cited in this text were current as of February 2009, unless otherwise noted. Acquisitions Editors: Scott Wikgren, Cheri Scott, and Anna Rinaldi; Developmental Editor: Ray Vallese; Assistant Editor: Derek Campbell; Special Projects Editor: Coree Clark; Copyeditor: Alisha Jeddeloh; Proofreader: Red Inc.; Indexer: Nancy Ball; Permission Manager: Dalene Reeder; Graphic Designer: Fred Starbird; Graphic Artist: Angela K. Snyder; Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg; Photographer (cover): Keith Blomberg; Photographer (interior): Neil Bernstein, unless otherwise noted; Photo Asset Manager: Laura Fitch; Visual Production Assistant: Joyce Brumfield; Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen; Art Manager: Kelly Hendren; Associate Art Manager: Alan L. Wilborn; Illustrators: Katherine Auble, Joanne Brummett, Tim Brummett, Mike Meyers, Gisela Kraus, Rachel Rogge, Becky Oles, and Heidi Richter; Printer: Versa Press Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. Human Kinetics Web site: United States: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics, 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100, Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics, 107 Bradford Road, Stanningley, Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] Australia: Human Kinetics, 57A Price Avenue, Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062 08 8372 0999 e-mail: [email protected] New Zealand: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 80, Torrens Park, South Australia 5062 0800 222 062 e-mail: [email protected] E4039 5 Contents Cover Preface What You’ll Find in This Book What You’ll Find Online CHAPTER 1 Health Promotion Health and Wellness Fitness Benefits and Guidelines Effective Goals Theories and Models of Behavior Modification Health Promotion 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 2 Fitness Basics Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory Fitness Muscular Strength and Endurance Flexibility Body Composition Special Considerations Being Active in College Fitness Basics 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 3 Nutrition Body Basics Digestion, From Beginning to End 6 Eating a Balanced Diet Food Safety Junk Science Nutrition for Special Populations Nutrition 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 4 Weight Management How Did We Get Here? Basic Regulation of Eating and Body Weight Ways to Assess Weight and Fatness Health Effects of Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight Causes of Overweight, Obesity, and underweight Embracing a Healthy Weight Management Lifestyle Dieting in the United States Weight-Loss Maintenance Critical Moments for Weight Management Size Acceptance Managing Too Little Body Weight (Underweight) Changing the Obesogenic Environment Weight Management 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 5 Mental Health Young Adults and Mental Health History and Stigma Treatment Methods Over Time Medication Psychological Theories What Determines Mental Health? Diagnosing Mental Illness 7 Treatment Modalities Getting Help Mental Health Professionals Mental Health 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 6 Stress Management Types of Stress Types of Stressors Effects of Stress on Body Systems Stress and Disease Stress Management Techniques Negative Coping Techniques Stress Management 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 7 Intimacy and Sexuality Life Span of Sexual Development Sexual Anatomy Stimulation and Climax Sexual Expression Spectrum of Sexuality Sexual Norms Ability and Sexuality Intimacy and Sexuality 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 8 Reproductive Choices 8 Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy Choosing a Birth Control Method Protection Against Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections Protection Against Pregnancy Only Abortion Reproductive Choices 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 9 Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy Conception and Implantation Pregnancy Childbirth Postpartum Period Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 10 Infectious Diseases Chain of Infection Methods of Transmission Causes of Infectious Diseases Risk Factors Your Body’s Defenses Common Infectious Diseases Sexually Transmitted Infections How to Protect Yourself Infectious Diseases 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary 9 References and Resources CHAPTER 11 Chronic Diseases Cardiovascular Disease Arthritis Lung Disease Cancer Diabetes Alzheimer’s Disease Chronic Diseases 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 12 Health Care Consumerism Finding the Right Health Insurance Plan Choosing a Doctor Identifying Reliable Information Being Your Own Health Care Advocate Reading Medicine Labels Complementary Alternative Medicine and Alternative Medicine Avoiding Quacks Health Care Consumerism 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 13 Environmental Health Ecosystems Environment and Public Health Diseases and Disorders Going Green Environmental Health 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities 10 Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 14 Substance Abuse and Dependency Scope of the Problem Who Will Become Abusers? Types of Drugs Abuse and Dependency at Different Stages of Life Substance Abuse and Dependency 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 15 Healthy Aging More People Are Living Longer Body System Changes During Aging Aging Theories Unhealthy Aging Managing the Changes of Aging End-of-Life Issues Healthy Aging 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources CHAPTER 16 Wellness Throughout Life Changes in Health and Wellness Over Time Six Dimensions of Wellness Factors That Influence Wellness Reaching and Maintaining Wellness Wellness Throughout Life 101 Review Questions Critical Thinking Application Activities Glossary References and Resources 11 Preface If I knew I was going to live this long, I would have taken better care of myself. —attributed to Mickey Mantle (and others) If you’re like many college students, you’re enjoying independence, self-exploration, meeting new friends, and experiencing new things. You might be on your own for the first time in your life, making your own lifestyle choices. It is now, during these years of growth and maturation, that your health habits, whether good or bad, are established and sometimes carried well into adulthood. And, like Mickey Mantle, you’re probably not thinking about the long-term effects of the decisions you’re making. This book will help you make informed decisions regarding your health and wellness. The decisions are yours, but we provide you with the best information available to help you. People are living longer and healthier than ever before in history. Increases in life span and quality of life are due to many medical breakthroughs, countless research studies, and an increase in health literacy. In an article that received considerable attention from federal, state, and local public health officials, McGinnis and Foege (1993) argued that the real causes of death are related to behavior or the environment. The shift in public health from prevention of infectious disease to prevention of chronic disease eventually funneled down to the health education curriculum being taught in schools. State and federal government mandates the prevention-based education that is in schools today. In Healthy People 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines health literacy as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” (National Network of Libraries of Medicine 2008). Health literacy is important so that you can learn how to communicate with your doctors, read and interpret health literature, and have the skills to manage your health and prevent disease. The importance of Health and Wellness for Life establishes the relationship between learning and doing. Scenarios, examples, tips, and recommendations apply to your world and bridge the gap between learning about health and applying it to your everyday life. The textbook features a conversational tone and includes questions for assessment, review, and discussion; learning objectives; activities; and sidebars on topics in the news and culture to help you understand what you read and retain what you learn. Special focus is given to timely and controversial issues, encouraging you to think critically about media and advertising. Special elements on steps for behavioral change and the mind–body connection also show you how to take action to address health issues to improve mental and physical health. As the scientific links between environment and health become stronger, awareness 12 of how lifestyle choices affect health is more important than ever before. Health and Wellness for Life provides you with the tools to increase your health literacy and make educated decisions about your health now and in the future. 13 What You’ll Find in This Book The 16 chapters in Health and Wellness for Life cover a broad range of topics to help you make informed choices about your health and wellness. Chapter 1, Health Promotion, explains the difference between health and wellness, the six dimensions of wellness, and the many components of fitness. It also looks at the promotion of health, wellness, and fitness in the United States. It shows you how to set goals to establish or improve healthy behaviors and helps you understand how and why we might make (or don’t make) changes in our lifestyles. Chapter 2, Fitness Basics, explores health-related fitness—the ability of your body to carry out everyday activities—and its five components: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. It also delivers the practical information you need to stay physically active in college and throughout your adult life. In chapter 3, Nutrition, you’ll learn about the macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, and water) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in the human diet and how to determine the dietary guidelines you need for maintenance, growth, and activity. The chapter also covers the safe handling of food to prevent foodborne illnesses and the specific dietary needs of vegetarians, pregnant women, and other populations. Chapter 4, Weight Management, explains the nature and ramifications of the current obesity epidemic in the United States. It can be challenging to maintain a healthy body weight, but understanding the energy equation and applying it to your own behaviors is a great place to start. This chapter shows you how to develop and implement solutions for weight management that are effective, healthy, and long lasting. When considering your health, don’t focus solely on the physical. As explained in chapter 5, Mental Health, good mental health is important for your overall sense of well-being and your ability to adapt, maintain balance, and manage difficult situations. No one should let the stigma of mental illness prevent him or her from seeking treatment when necessary. This chapter helps you learn to recognize and deal with the signs and symptoms of mental illness in yourself or in others. Chapter 6, Stress Management, teaches you how to handle the various kinds of stress that come from work, school, family, and major life changes. Health risks associated with stress can affect how well your body’s systems function, and stress can be a factor in cancer, hypertension, and other diseases. Not everyone finds the same things to be stressful or deals with stress the same way, but you can learn some simple, positive management techniques such as meditation, muscle relaxation, and exercise. Sexuality is a complex issue, dynamic and sometimes confusing. In chapter 7, Intimacy and Sexuality, you’ll learn about the physical and psychological changes that occur throughout life, as well as the many types of sexual expression that humans engage in. The chapter also looks at issues involving behavior, orientation, and gender 14 identity. Learning to be comfortable with yourself is an important step in being a happy, satisfied sexual being. Chapter 8, Reproductive Choices, walks you through the many types of birth control. Some, such as condoms and abstinence, protect against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Others—including several hormonal methods and barrier methods—protect only against pregnancy. The chapter doesn’t recommend one method over others or try to talk you into (or out of) anything. It simply presents the pros and cons of reproductive choices so that you can decide which are best for you. Chapter 9, Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth, examines the complex process by which babies are conceived, develop, and are born, from the moment that a male’s sperm penetrates the female’s ovum until the postpartum period that occurs in the weeks after delivery. You’ll learn about the possible complications of pregnancy and the three stages of labor, as well as methods of overcoming infertility. Sometimes it can be difficult to stay healthy when everyone around you seems sick. Chapter 10, Infectious Diseases, shows you that while germs might be everywhere, you can take control of your behaviors and lifestyle choices to reduce your chance of developing an infectious disease. You’ll learn about the major methods of transmission and causes of infectious diseases; the management of risk factors; the components of your immune system; and the causes, symptoms, and treatments of common infectious diseases. Chapter 11, Chronic Diseases, explains how long-term diseases—such as cardiovascular disease, lung disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease —place burdens not only on the patients but also on society as a whole. Genetics plays a role in your risk of developing a chronic disease, but the good news is that maintaining a healthy lifestyle can be the best prevention strategy. Do you know an HMO from a PPO? Have you thought much about your health care? For many people, college is the time when they begin to make decisions about choosing doctors, obtaining health insurance, paying for health care costs, and making choices about prescriptions and over-the-counter medications. Chapter 12, Health Care Consumerism, helps you learn how to make informed decisions about your health care. It also covers common alternative care options, including acupuncture, chiropractic medicine, massage, and herbal medicine. Chapter 13, Environmental Health, looks at how our interactions with nature affect our own health—how environmental factors may have an adverse effect on human health or on the ecological balances that are essential to our long-term health and to the quality of the environment. You’ll learn about ecosystems, climate change, and the impact of toxins, pollution, and waste. You’ll get tips on going green and reducing your personal waste, and you’ll learn about other ways to improve your environmental health behaviors. Chapter 14, Substance Abuse and Dependency, covers the harmful effects of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs and the resources that are available for prevention and treatment. It 15 examines substances that are commonly abused, including cocaine, heroin, MDMA, methamphetamine, and steroids. Substance abuse and dependency increase the risk for developing adverse health effects, behavioral problems, and financial struggles. Understanding the dynamics of abuse and dependency is the first step toward management of the problem. How old is old? The answer depends on whom you ask. Chapter 15, Healthy Aging, describes how organs and body systems age, how people become more susceptible to chronic diseases, and how everyone must make decisions about treatment and care options in later years. Genetics plays a part in how you age and whether you’ll be more susceptible to disease, but your lifestyle choices—such as exercising, healthy eating, and social relationships—have an even greater impact. Chapter 16, Wellness Throughout Life, shows you how maintaining your wellness (not simply your health) is an essential part of living a healthy, happy, and productive life. Health and wellness aren’t just goals to achieve but the results of a lifelong process. In this chapter, you’ll learn the dimensions of wellness, the factors that influence health and wellness, and how you can change your behaviors if necessary. 16 What You’ll Find Online Health and Wellness for Life is part of the Health on Demand series, and you can learn more about the series at . That Web site also provides an online student resource (OSR) and an online study guide (OSG) that complement the textbook. For each chapter in the book, the OSR offers several extended discussions of relevant topics to help you expand your knowledge, as well as links to other pertinent sites for further exploration. In the OSR, you’ll also find glossaries of terms and definitions from the book, along with answers to the review questions at the end of each chapter so that you can check your understanding of key points. Additionally, the OSR has student activities that help you put the concepts you are learning into practice. For each chapter in the book, the OSG provides a key terms exercise, two activities to help you practice the skills you are learning, and an interactive quiz to test your knowledge. Your teacher might ask you to visit the OSR or the OSG and explore their topics in conjunction with activities or assignments for chapters. You can also check out the Health on Demand Web site on your own whenever you want to learn more about what you’re reading. 17 References McGinnis, J.M., and W.H. Foege. 1993. Actual causes of death in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 270 (18): 2207-2212. National Network of Libraries of Medicine. 2008. Health literacy. . 18 CHAPTER 1 19 Health Promotion Kelli O’Neil, MA, CSCS University of Iowa 20 Assessment • What are the six dimensions of wellness, and how can you attain them? • Certain strategies can enhance the success of your behavior changes to pro...
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