5-Water Conservation and Management-rev.docx - Water Conservation and Management Primary source of water in India is south-west and north-east monsoons

5-Water Conservation and Management-rev.docx - Water...

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Water Conservation and Management Primary source of water in India is south-west and north-east monsoons. Monsoon, however, is erratic and amount of rain fall is highly variable in different parts of our country. Hence, surface runoff needs be conserved. Terms associated with Bio-digester Bio-digesters: The term bio digester is used for the shells made up of steel for the anaerobic digestion of human waste. Bio tank: The term bio tank is used for the tanks made up of concrete for the anaerobic digestion of human waste. Aerobic Bacteria: Aerobic bacteria are those which flourish in the presence of free dissolved oxygen in the waste water and consume organic matter for their food, and thereby oxidizing it to stable end products. Anaerobic Bacteria: Anaerobic bacteria flourish in the absence of free dissolved oxygen, and survive by utilizing the bounded molecular oxygen in compounds like nitrates (NO3) and sulphates (SO4) etc. thereby reducing them to stable end products along with evolution of foul smelling gases like H2S (hydrogen sulphide), CH4 (methane) Facultative Bacteria: Facultative bacteria can operate either as aerobically or as anaerobically. Anaerobic Microbial inoculums: mixture of different types of bacteria (hydrolytic, Acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic groups) responsible for breakdown of complex polymers into simple sugars which are further broken down into low chain fatty acids and finally into biogas . Anaerobic biodegradation system Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
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The final waste are Methane and Carbon Dioxide. Aerobic biodegradation Vs Anaerobic biodegradation Aerobic biodegradation Forced aeration is essential which is energy intensive. Incomplete aeration (partial aerobic condition) leads to foul smell. Less effective pathogen inactivation. Cannot tolerate detergents Generate large amount of sludge. Repeated addition of bacteria/enzyme is required for the process. Maintenance & recurring cost is high. Anaerobic biodegradation No aeration is required. Complete anaerobic conditions. More than 99% pathogen inactivation. Anaerobes can even degrade detergents/phenyl Sludge generation is very less. One time bacterial inoculation is enough. Minimal maintenance and no recurring cost. Contour farming Contour farming is an example of harvesting technique involving water and moisture control at a very simple level. It often consists of rows of rocks placed along the contour of steps. Runoff captured by these barriers also allows for retention of soil, thereby serving as erosion control measure on gentle slopes.
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