Research Application The Negative and positive Controls in a.docx

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Research Application: The Negative and positive Controls in an experiment, where the researcher wishes to determine "What effect X has on Yin comparison to no XT the treatment where X is absent is called the native control. A negative control is the condition in which the experimenter does not perturb the variable under study. As we saw in the readings from Snake Oil Science that is often difficult to do. A positive control is used to validate the system. The positive control tells the researcher that the instruments being used are performing as expected, and therefore the experimental group is measuring the actual dependent variable. It can also contextualize the experimental data by providing a comparison between the perturbation and the negative controls to a known, validated agent. In this exercise, you are examining the use of positive and negative controls in a tissue culture experiment. From this exercise, it is hoped that the student will be able to 1. Differentiate between negative and positive control groups 2. Design and analyze experiments that utilize the negative and positive controls 3. Successfully interpret the results of experiments Establishing the "Unperturbed by X" negative and positive control in a tissue culture experiment In this example, the researcher is interested in answering the questions: "Does nerve growth factor (NGF) cause phosphorylation of Akt?" when applied in
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a clonal cell line study Background information: NGF is a secreted protein that induces certain cells to become "neuron- like where the precursor cells differentiate into cells that put out very long processes that resemble axons. Specifically, NGF induces phosphorylation of certain cellular proteins in cells expressing TrkA, the receptor to NGF. Once Trka is! phosphorylated, it starts a cascade effect where further proteins are phosphorylated downstream. Phosphorylation of these proteins could result in 1) binding of two proteins, 2) increased or decreased cellular activity, 3) gene activation when the protein being phosphorylated is a transcription factor or 4) degradation of the protein being phosphorylated. Any of these responses first requires that NGF binds to TrkA.
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