Lecture 14 - 15 Thermodynamics Annotations.pdf - Lecture#14 15 Classical Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformation The field of

Lecture 14 - 15 Thermodynamics Annotations.pdf - Lecture#14...

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Lecture #14 - 15 Classical Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformation. The field of classical thermodynamics was developed independently of atomic theories – it was developed using the conversions of energy in steam engines. Thus far, we have discussed energies for atoms and electrons. For example, we analyzed the potential energies of the atoms based upon the Coulombic attraction between the protons and electrons. We analyzed the kinetic energy relationships with the electron being ejected in the photoelectric effect. The key idea throughout bonding and intermolecular forces is the notion that all processes are driven toward achieving a minimum energy state. Thermodynamics allows us to analyze the energy and its transformations at a deeper level. To understand how energies are being converted – we need to define the system and surroundings. Our system is generally our point of interest (i.e. chemical reactions, or a specific gas or metal, or a reaction vessel). We are analyzing how energy moves between the system and everything else (the surroundings). Generally, when doing thermodynamics, one must be clear in their definitions for the system and the surroundings. Open systems are open to everything – mass transfer and energy transfer can both occur. Isolated systems are closed to everything – neither mass transfer or energy transfer can occur. Closed systems allow for energy transfer but not mass transfer. For the first part of our discussion, we are focusing upon only energy transfer (no reactions); therefore, we are analyzing closed systems. Forms of Energy include kinetic and potential. Kinetic energy is associated with energy of motion (translation, rotation, vibration etc.). Potential energy is associated with energies of bonds—therefore, potential energies change when bonds are formed or broken. With thermodynamics, we are analyzing how the energies changes, therefore, we care about the change in internal energy ( D E), which is equal to the combined changes in potential and kinetic energies. If reactions or phase changes are not occurring, then the change in internal energy is simply equal to the change in kinetic energy.
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  • Fall '08
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