Pathophysiology Chapter 10 Notes.docx - Alterations in Immune Function Hypersensitivity Normal immune response that is either inappropriately triggered

Pathophysiology Chapter 10 Notes.docx - Alterations in...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.

Alterations in Immune Function Hypersensitivity Normal immune response that is either inappropriately triggered or becomes excessive Excessive response to an allergen (often an allergen that would not normally cause a response), the immune system is out of control Usually doesn’t occur from first exposure… first exposure is sensitization The first time immune system identifies a substance as foreign/harmful, it attacks it and makes antibodies or memory cells to the antigen. The second time, memory cells are made and antibodies are preformed, so the response is rapid Types 1-3 happen rapidly, type 4 happens slowly over time Specific antigen-antibody complex happens in types 1-3… Mediated by antibodies produced by B-lymphocytes Antigen-WBC interaction, or antigen-lymphocyte interaction, happens with type 4… Mediated by T-cells Hypersensitivity Type 1 ETIOLOGY Allergic Reaction… typically to peanuts, pet dander, pollen, etc… can be mild to severe IgE involvement… usually high IgE levels Strong genetic predisposition Lots of IgE made first time with no physical response, but upon subsequent exposures many antibodies floating around waiting for antigen ready to lock with antigen PATHOGENESIS Immediate hypersensitivity, reaction occurs 15-30 minutes after exposure… happens quickly Mast cells/basophils principle effector cells (tissue/blood) RELEASED MEDIATORS THAT CAUSE INFLAMMATION Histamine – Most important, causes increased vascular permeability, vasodilation, urticaria, smooth muscle constriction, increased mucus secretion, puritis Heparin – Anticoagulant that decreases clot formation
Image of page 1
Chemotactic – Sends signals to other inflammatory cells to get activated CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS INSIDE BODY Vasodilation (blood cells dilate) Increased cell permeability (swelling) Drop in blood pressure (due to vasodilation and fluid leaving vascular space into tissue) Edema (from fluid in tissue) CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OUTSIDE OF BODY Mild … Hives, seasonal allergic rhinitis, eczema Moderate … Throat constriction, localized edema, wheezing (because airway closed off with mucus), tachycardia (because of sympathetic response due to closed off airway), airway swelling, fear and anxiety (from shortness of breath) Anaphylaxis (Problematic)
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture