Chapter 1: About Science and Review of 2D Plots and Algebraic Equations
Physical Science
●
Science is the study of nature, the world around us, and it may change/evolve with time as a
result of addition of new knowledge.
●
It depends on our observation skills, curiosity, and ability to ask questions.
●
Science has to include thoughts that can be tested.
Mathematical Science
●
Math is the study of figures and numbers.
●
Math can not
be tested.
Key Concepts:
●
Cause-and-effect
○
Trying to find out what events cause what results
●
Rational Thinking
○
Basic of knowledge
Fact: Science greatly advanced when Galileo favored
experiment over philosophical discussions
.
Mathematics
●
Direct Proportion (Positive Slope) - The
more
I eat, all other things being equal, the
more
weight
I gain
●
Inverse Proportion (Negative Slope) - The
more
I eat, all other things being equal, the
less
successful my diet will be
Independent qualities = Cause
Dependent qualities = Effect
Mathematics and Conceptual
●
Math is an important tool in science
●
Equations are shorthand notation for the relationships between scientific concepts
●
Abbreviates a relationship that can be stated in words
○
Example of Direct: Person 2 is proportionate to Person 1
○
Example of Inverse: Person 2 is proportionate to 1/Person 1
●
Makes common sense
●
Equations can guide your thinking
Slope = Rise/Run
EP-01
A car travels at a constant speed. The more time it travels, the farther it goes. Distance is directly
proportional to time.

A spring stretches and compresses according to Hooke’s law, which states
F = kx
, where
F
is the force,
k
is the spring constant, and
x
is the stretched or compressed distance. For a certain spring with a spring
constant of 3 N/cm, how much force is needed to stretch this spring 4 cm past its resting length.
k
= 3/1 = 3 N/cm
F
= 3x
x
= 4 cm
F
= 3(4)
F
= 12 N
The Scientific Method:
1.
Ask Questions
2.
Do Background Research
3.
Construct Hypothesis
4.
Test with an Experiment
5.
Analyze Results/Draw Conclusion
a.
If hypothesis is
true
, go to Step 6.
b.
If hypothesis is
false
or partially true, go to Step 3 and try again.
6.
Report Results
The Scientific Method - A Classic Tool
More important than a particular scientific method is
●
Attitude of inquiry
●
Experimentation

●
Willingness to accept findings, even those not desired.
The Scientific Hypothesis
Principle of falsifiability
Facts and Theories
●
What is a “fact”?
Fact is a truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true.
●
What is a “theory”?
Theory is a synthesis of facts and well-tested hypothesis
●
Law is a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been
tested over and over again, and has not been contradicted - also known as a principle
Science has Limitations
Domain of Science
●
Is in natural phenomena
●
Does not deal with the “supernatural”
A domain “above science”
Pseudoscience
has no tests for wrongness
.

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- Spring '14
- EdwardR.Forringer