Chapter 1: About Science and Review of 2D Plots and Algebraic Equations Physical Science ● Science is the study of nature, the world around us, and it may change/evolve with time as a result of addition of new knowledge. ● It depends on our observation skills, curiosity, and ability to ask questions. ● Science has to include thoughts that can be tested. Mathematical Science ● Math is the study of figures and numbers. ● Math can not be tested. Key Concepts: ● Cause-and-effect ○ Trying to find out what events cause what results ● Rational Thinking ○ Basic of knowledge Fact: Science greatly advanced when Galileo favored experiment over philosophical discussions . Mathematics ● Direct Proportion (Positive Slope) - The more I eat, all other things being equal, the more weight I gain ● Inverse Proportion (Negative Slope) - The more I eat, all other things being equal, the less successful my diet will be Independent qualities = Cause Dependent qualities = Effect Mathematics and Conceptual ● Math is an important tool in science ● Equations are shorthand notation for the relationships between scientific concepts ● Abbreviates a relationship that can be stated in words ○ Example of Direct: Person 2 is proportionate to Person 1 ○ Example of Inverse: Person 2 is proportionate to 1/Person 1 ● Makes common sense ● Equations can guide your thinking Slope = Rise/Run EP-01 A car travels at a constant speed. The more time it travels, the farther it goes. Distance is directly proportional to time.
A spring stretches and compresses according to Hooke’s law, which states F = kx , where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the stretched or compressed distance. For a certain spring with a spring constant of 3 N/cm, how much force is needed to stretch this spring 4 cm past its resting length. k = 3/1 = 3 N/cm F = 3x x = 4 cm F = 3(4) F = 12 N The Scientific Method: 1. Ask Questions 2. Do Background Research 3. Construct Hypothesis 4. Test with an Experiment 5. Analyze Results/Draw Conclusion a. If hypothesis is true , go to Step 6. b. If hypothesis is false or partially true, go to Step 3 and try again. 6. Report Results The Scientific Method - A Classic Tool More important than a particular scientific method is ● Attitude of inquiry ● Experimentation
● Willingness to accept findings, even those not desired. The Scientific Hypothesis Principle of falsifiability Facts and Theories ● What is a “fact”? Fact is a truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true. ● What is a “theory”? Theory is a synthesis of facts and well-tested hypothesis ● Law is a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again, and has not been contradicted - also known as a principle Science has Limitations Domain of Science ● Is in natural phenomena ● Does not deal with the “supernatural” A domain “above science” Pseudoscience has no tests for wrongness .
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- Spring '14