Notes for Integrated Physical Science... because I don't have any notebook paper.docx - Chapter 1 About Science and Review of 2D Plots and Algebraic

Notes for Integrated Physical Science... because I don't have any notebook paper.docx

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Chapter 1: About Science and Review of 2D Plots and Algebraic Equations Physical Science Science is the study of nature, the world around us, and it may change/evolve with time as a result of addition of new knowledge. It depends on our observation skills, curiosity, and ability to ask questions. Science has to include thoughts that can be tested. Mathematical Science Math is the study of figures and numbers. Math can not be tested. Key Concepts: Cause-and-effect Trying to find out what events cause what results Rational Thinking Basic of knowledge Fact: Science greatly advanced when Galileo favored experiment over philosophical discussions . Mathematics Direct Proportion (Positive Slope) - The more I eat, all other things being equal, the more weight I gain Inverse Proportion (Negative Slope) - The more I eat, all other things being equal, the less successful my diet will be Independent qualities = Cause Dependent qualities = Effect Mathematics and Conceptual Math is an important tool in science Equations are shorthand notation for the relationships between scientific concepts Abbreviates a relationship that can be stated in words Example of Direct: Person 2 is proportionate to Person 1 Example of Inverse: Person 2 is proportionate to 1/Person 1 Makes common sense Equations can guide your thinking Slope = Rise/Run EP-01 A car travels at a constant speed. The more time it travels, the farther it goes. Distance is directly proportional to time.
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A spring stretches and compresses according to Hooke’s law, which states F = kx , where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the stretched or compressed distance. For a certain spring with a spring constant of 3 N/cm, how much force is needed to stretch this spring 4 cm past its resting length. k = 3/1 = 3 N/cm F = 3x x = 4 cm F = 3(4) F = 12 N The Scientific Method: 1. Ask Questions 2. Do Background Research 3. Construct Hypothesis 4. Test with an Experiment 5. Analyze Results/Draw Conclusion a. If hypothesis is true , go to Step 6. b. If hypothesis is false or partially true, go to Step 3 and try again. 6. Report Results The Scientific Method - A Classic Tool More important than a particular scientific method is Attitude of inquiry Experimentation
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Willingness to accept findings, even those not desired. The Scientific Hypothesis Principle of falsifiability Facts and Theories What is a “fact”? Fact is a truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true. What is a “theory”? Theory is a synthesis of facts and well-tested hypothesis Law is a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again, and has not been contradicted - also known as a principle Science has Limitations Domain of Science Is in natural phenomena Does not deal with the “supernatural” A domain “above science” Pseudoscience has no tests for wrongness .
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  • EdwardR.Forringer

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