Culture and Anthropological Models Cultural Evolution (Social Darwinism)Structural FunctionalismHistorical Particularism (Cultural Relativism)French StructuralismSymbolic and Interpretive AnthropologyConflict Perspectives
Cultural EvolutionBest exemplified in Edward B. Tylor’s work known as Primitive Culture (1871) and Lewis Henry Morgan’s work named Ancient Society(1877), this 19thcentury theory was one of the earliest approaches to human societies and cultures.
Cultural EvolutionAlso known as Social Darwinism, the notion of Cultural Evolution is an attempt to apply Darwin’s Theory of Evolution to human societies and cultures. Cultural evolutionists believed that the “survival of the fittest” dictates the fate of the people. According to these theorists, cultural evolution has to be conceived in terms of stages through which all societies progressed; Western societies and cultures are at the apex of the hierarchy of progress while there are less-progressed cultures or contemporary “survivals” of the earlier stages.