file_68263.ppt - Quantum phenomena Learning outcomes explain atomic line spectra in terms of electron energy levels and a photon model of

file_68263.ppt - Quantum phenomena Learning outcomes...

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Quantum phenomena
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Learning outcomes explain atomic line spectra in terms of electron energy levels and a photon model of electromagnetic radiation describe and explain the photoelectric effect, provide evidence of the wave nature of electrons and describe how their wavelength depends on speed describe radioactive decay, fission and fusion in terms of nuclear binding energy and mass defect E = mc 2 explain how quantum theory differs from classical physics solve related quantitative problems connect and use an electron diffraction tube max k E hf mv h
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Teaching challenges Whereas classical physics rewards students who can picture what is happening, quantum theory defies visualisation. Abstract and counter-intuitive ideas need to be linked to visible phenomena and devices, including some already familiar to students. Most A-level specifications trivialise the teaching of quantum phenomena and fail to distinguish it properly from classical physics.
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Scientific explanation correlates separate observations suggests new relations and directions gives testable hypotheses (empirical ‘acid test’)
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Unifications in physics Mechanical theory (Newton, 1687) Entities: particles, inertia, force that lies along a line between interacting particles. Electromagnetic theory (Maxwell, 1864) Entities: electric & magnetic fields, force that is perpendicular to both field & motion. celestial motions terrestrial motions, in 3-D heat (kinetic theory) magnetism electricity optics Relativity theory (Einstein, 1905 & 1916) unites all phenomena above Quantum theory (Planck 1900; Einstein 1905,16,17; Bohr & Heisenberg 1925; Schrodinger 1926; Dirac 1927; Bethe, Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman & Dyson 1940s …) atoms and nuclei Dissolves the classical distinction between point particles & non-local fields/waves. Quantum objects manage both at once .
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The end of the mechanical age 1. Things move in a continuous manner. All motion, both in the large and small, exhibits continuity. 2. Things move for reasons. All motion has a history, is determinable and predictable. 3. The universe and all its constituents can be understood as complex machinery, each component moving simply. 4. A careful observer can observe physical phenomena without disturbing them. Inside atoms, all of these statements proved false.
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What went wrong? Classical physics could not explain line spectra electron configuration in atoms black body radiation photoelectric effect specific thermal capacity of a crystalline solid Compton scattering of X-rays
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‘Quantum theory’
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