Brinksmanship.docx - BRINKSMANSHIP EXAM PREPARATION Arms...

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BRINKSMANSHIP EXAM PREPARATION Arms Race Treaty of San Francisco: 1952 The official ending of the Allied-occupation of America should Japan accept the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. Stalin’s death: 1953 Stalin’s rule from 1948 until his death in 1953 was marked with paranoia, Five Year Plans, collectivization and the development of heavy industries → any opposition such as that of Tito in Yugoslavia ended with expulsion and local opposition was sent to the gulags where party purges were common Stalin’s bomb program was limitless in terms of money, workforce from the gulags and American spies that aided in accelerating the manufacturing process, so by 1952 when the Soviets launched their first bomb, America strived to do better and create the Hydrogen fusion bomb → nine-months later, the soviets would form an even better thermonuclear device. Many assumed that with Stalin’s death, conditions in the USSR and its sphere of influence would improve → Stalin’s associates, Malenkov and Khrushchev would fight for the position East Germany (tanks) As word of Stalin’s death and the possibility of new moderate government reached East Germany, anti- Soviet demonstrations and a general strike will break out To save Ulbricht's loyal Stalinists, Khrushchev would send in Soviet troops and tanks to save this important Cold War frontier Eisenhower and the New Look The suppression of the uprising was America’s Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles’, opportunity to promise of the “liberation of captive peoples” in Eastern Europe New Look (1953): He condemned containment and suggested the rollback policy on communism as per Eisenhower’s improved defense policies → called for strategic nuclear weapons and improved air power while cutting back on conventional troops. This would not be as successful in West Europe with the extent of its implements being with the Radio Free Europe network broadcasting the desires for a liberated Europe. West Germany (NATO and East German Warsaw Pact): 1955 By May 1955, West Germany will have joined NATO alongside France, armed and surprisingly with Soviet approval → later they would be accepting of Germany’s divided bloc and their non- neutrality That same month, East Germany will have been brought into the Warsaw Pact Khrushchev As First Secretary of the Communist Party, Khrushchev take on a relaxed Stalinist policy, releasing some gulag members, mending fences with China, Yugoslavia and Austria. East Austria (1955): the nation having been divided like Germany, was offered liberation from the Soviets in exchange for neutrality (ensuring that they will not lean to the West like West Germany) → Washington would appreciate this Spirit of Geneva Meeting: 1956 Khrushchev's seize of power would prove to improve bilateral relationships significantly. At that Geneva

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