Detente and Vietnam War.docx - DETENTE AND VIETNAM WAR EXAM...

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DETENTE AND VIETNAM WAR EXAM PREPARATIONSino-Soviet SplitCultural RevolutionMovement launched by Chairman Mao after Sino-Soviet SplitAimed to purge capitalism and promote Maoism as the dominant ideology in the nationMyriad of humans rights offenses and persecutions, worked to build cult of personalityFour OldsAim to abolish ideologies of the warring ChinaReforms in customs, culture, habits and ideasAimed to change the country to align with Maoism on all frontsPurgeRemoved people that had power who went against Mao’s ideologiesLandlords were among those who were infamously persecutedClassism was abolished, new ideas formed similar to it were used to persecute communists that did not align with Mao’s policyRivalry Regarding KoreaLack of eager Soviet commitment to the cause did not aid Chinese moraleThey refused to send troops to fight alongside the Chinese on the groundThis created sparks, eventually beginning the Sino-Soviet SplitFurther became an issue during Taiwan Strait Crises, where Soviets also failed to helpBorder ClashSoviets were amassing troops and airplanes along the Sino-Soviet borderEventually, tensions flared and a conflict occurred between border patrolsWhich side started it was unknown at the time, leading to increased tensions and actions taken by both Brezhnev and Mao, worsening relations and making split more evidentKissingerSecretary of State during the Nixon administrationPlayed a great part in developing foreign policy and facilitating VietnamisationReceived a Nobel Prize for efforts in peacemaking talks during Paris negotiationsNixon’s Visit to MoscowFirst time that an American leader visited, had talks with Brezhnev and KosyginKosygin: Apollo-Soyuz Test ProjectBrezhnev: SALT I, ABM, joint declaration of long-term plans to disarm and cease conflictSALT IStrategic Arms Limitation Treaty, aimed at disarmament and detenteDecrease in ICBMs, no limits on MIRVs which increased as a resultHighlighted significant progress in detente, paved the way for future SALT talksABM TreatyLimitations in operational anti-ballistic missile defense systemsEach party limited to 2 sites, each with 100 ABMsOnly called for reduction in defense against “strategic ballistic missiles”Not clearly definedCounter-tactical ABMs were still in production
Helsinki Accords and the Three BasketsConvening of Warsaw Pact and NATO nations to come to agreements and continue detenteCalled for peaceful frontiers and honouring national sovereigntyBasketsEuropean countries inviolable by forcePromotion of links/exchanges across the Iron CurtainRespecting human rights (speech, movement across Europe)Largely ignored by Soviets, despite the West seeing it as a leap forwardOstpolitikLooking eastwards with respect to foreign policy; done by western Germany

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