Chapters 3, 4, & 5 - Chapter 3 \u25cf Symbols are building blocks of language \u25cf Symbol and sign characteristics \u25cb Arbitrary describes the symbol

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 - Chapter 3 u25cf Symbols are building...

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Chapter 3: Symbols are building blocks of language Symbol and sign characteristics: Arbitrary - describes the symbol themselves as having no direct connection with the things they represent Semiotics - study of social production of meaning from sign systems lie language Signifier - physical thing as we perceive it in the world around us Signified - idea or mental construct of the signifier Sign - arbitrary symbol that represents the signifier and the signified (many diff signs for the same signifier) Ambiguous - describes word as being without absolute meaning ( can be used in a variety of contexts) Denotative meaning - meaning assigned to a sign without understanding its history of usage and application (literal definition) Connotative meaning - meaning that comes from a set of associations a word brings to mind in a person Abstract - idea that language is not tangible or concrete CAN refer to a set of terms that refer to things that are intangible or not specific Ladder of Abstraction Negative - idea that language separates things from their natural state Label divides things between what it is and what it is not SOMETIMES the best way to communicate is to explain what you don't mean Metaphoric language → metaphor (linguistic device that highlights qualities of two objects in an explicit comparison) Simile - compare two things alike through the use of “like” or “as” Focus on specific attributes shared and are more explicit ei. “You are like a kid at christmas.” Synecdoche - uses one part of something to refer to the whole thing Any acronym is a synecdoche ei. “She is learning her ABCs.” - she's learning the whole alphabet but “ABC” refers to the whole alphabet Metonym - use of tangible objects to refer to intangible things Help create more vivid, colorful, concrete vision
ei. “Blood, sweat, and tears.” Archetypal - use common human experiences to help describe another object Every person can relate, not culture bound ei. “Light at the end of the tunnel.” Mixed - phrases that use two different metaphors that do not logically fit Two things that have no inherent connection with each other ei. “We need to hit the bulls-eye or we will have to punt this decision to later.” Dead - metaphors that have lost the creative element from which they initially drew their power and are now just accepted as true terms ei. “Flowerbed,” “Branches of government” Language structures Repetition - practice of repeating words and phrases either immediately following the initial statement or in the same location in a message Make phrase memorable, important ei. Martin Luther King Jr. speech - “I have a dream.” Alliteration - practice of using the same vowel or consonant sound at the beginning of consecutive words Key = each word must relate to each other and the topic at hand ei. “Sally sells sea shells by the sea shore.”

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