Chapter 3 - Skepticism about Morality Assignment.docx - Chapter 3 Skepticism about Morality Part 1 Egoism vs Altruism 1 Based on the textbook

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Chapter 3: Skepticism about MoralityPart 1: Egoism vs. Altruism1. Based on the textbook information, but in your own words, define:--ethical egoism: Essentially, a selfish point of view. Your only moral duty is to yourself – you can do things for others, but only if it ultimately benefits yourself.--relativism: While not entirely skeptical, ethical relativists deny any objective moral standard. These are standards that apply to everyone, no matter what.--“error theory”: Doubts of morality based on four claims – 1. There are no moral features in this world; 2. No moral judgments are true; 3. Our sincere moral judgements try, and always fail, to describe the moral features of things; 4. There is no moral knowledge. 2. Outline and evaluate the following:--Ayn Rand’s self-reliance argument: The self-reliance argument essentially states that everyone would be better off if they mind their own business and tend to their own needs. As Shafer-Landau pointed out (and I agree), if someone is having a heart attack and needs CPR, and I am the only one around that can administer CPR, that person definitely would not be better off if I went about my merry way. “Everyone would be better off if people helped others to some extent.”--Ayn Rand’s libertarian argument: Any duty to aid someone else must be done voluntarily (our consent), or from trying to right a wrong done to violate someone else’s rights. If we do not agree to aid another person or if we have done them no wrong, then we are not morally obligated to help others. (**Please note that this examination of Ayn Rand's arguments does not imply endorsement of her philosophies.**)3. Define:--altruism: The motivation to benefit others for their own sake.
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  • Summer '17
  • Wijasena
  • Ethics, Shafer-Landau

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