Chapter 11 Book Notes.docx - Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System Blood 11-1 Describe the components and major functions of blood and list the physical

Chapter 11 Book Notes.docx - Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular...

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Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System: Blood 11-1 Describe the components and major functions of blood and list the physical characteristics of blood. Blood has five major functions 1. Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues, and carbon dioxide from these tissues to the lungs Blood distributes nutrients absorbed by digestive tract or released from storage in adipose tissue or in the liver Carries hormones from endocrine glands toward their target cells Absorbs and carries wastes produced by active cells to the kidneys for excretion 2. Regulating the pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids Diffusion between interstitial fluids and blood eliminates local deficiencies or excesses of ions such as calcium or potassium Blood also absorbs and neutralizes the acids generated by active tissues, such as lactic acid produced by skeletal muscle 3. Restricting fluid losses at injury sites Blood contains enzymes and factors the respond to breaks in vessel walls by initiating the process of. Blood clotting. Blood clot acts as a temporary patch that prevents further fluid loss 4. Defending against toxins and pathogens Blood transports white blood cells, specialized cells that migrate into body tissues to fight infections or remove debris.
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Blood delivers antibodies, special proteins that attack invading organisms or foreign compound 5. Stabilizing body temperature Blood absorbs the heat generated by active skeletal muscles and redistributes it to other tissues. If body temp is high, blood is directed toward the skin surface, where heat is lost to the environment. If body temp is low, warm blood is directed to the brain and other temperature-sensitive organs Composition of blood: made of plasma and formed elements (blood cells and cell fragments). The components of whole blood may be separated, or fractionated, for analytical or clinical purposes. The basic physical characteristics include: 1. Temperature temp is around 38 degrees Celsius (100.4F) slightly above normal body temp 2. Viscosity blood is 5x viscous as water (that is, it’s more sticker, cohesive, resistant to flow than water. The high viscosity is a result from interactions among the dissolved proteins, formed elements, and water molecules in plasma 3. pH blood is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45 Blood Collection and Analysis - Venipuncture: Fresh whole blood is usually collected from superficial vein, such as the median cubital vein on anterior surface of the elbow o Superficial veins are easy to locate o The walls of veins are thinner than those of arteries of comparable size o Blood pressure in veins is relatively low, so the puncture seals quickly o Most common clinical procedures examine venous blood
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- Arterial puncture may be required for evaluating the efficiency of gas exchange at the lungs.
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