© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Chapter 2 England’s Colonies
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Focus Questions 1. What motivated England to establish American colonies? 2. What were the characteristics of the English colonies in the Chesapeake region, the Carolinas, the middle colonies— Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware—and New England prior to 1700? 3. In what ways did the English colonists and Native Americans adapt to each other's presence? 4. What role did indentured servants and the development of slavery play in colonial America? 5. How did the English colonies become the most populous and powerful region in North America by 1700?
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The English Background Characteristics of British Development in the 1600s -- Developed apart from mainland Europe -- Feudal elements of society in decline English Liberties English Enterprise -- Primogeniture produces merchant class of younger sons -- Government creates monopolies
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The English Background Parliament and the Stuarts James I Charles I Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II William & Mary
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Execution of Charles I Flemish artist John Weesop witnessed the king’s execution in 1649 and painted this gruesome scene from memory. He was so disgusted by ‘a country where they cut off their king’s head’ that he refused to visit England again. The toppling of Charles I began the Interregnum, an 11-year period during which England lacked a monarchy.
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. English Governance The Glorious Revolution -- Pro-Catholic James II deposed in 1688 -- Replaced by Protestant William and Mary British Bill of Rights -- Empowers individuals rather than state -- Expands religious freedom Ripple Effects in the Colonies
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Settling the Chesapeake Joint Stock Companies -- Investors financed venture Differences Between English and Spanish Colonization Attempts -- Private vs. public -- Decentralized vs. hierarchical -- Settlers vs. conquerors -- Diversity vs. homogeneity
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ‘Ould Virginia’ This 1624 map of Virginia by John Smith, showing Chief Powhatan in the upper left.
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Virginia Colony Jamestown settlement (1607) -- Location swampy, unhealthy -- Instant profits didn’t come -- 66 of 104 died within 6 months Chief Powhatan -- Led local confederacy of Indians -- Relationship with Jamestown cooperative/competitive John Smith -- Military man restored order as colony neared collapse, left for good in 1609 John Smith
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Virginia Colony Reinforcement attempts -- ‘Want of industrie’ blamed for failure, but institution of property rights was key to turnaround -- Colony on verge of being abandoned when Lord De La Warr arrived with fresh settlers in 1610 Discovery of tobacco -- John Rolfe introduced it as export crop in 1612 -- Edward Sandys instituted headrights in 1618, leading to growth of plantation economy
© 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
- Spring '15