Oncology HW- Chapters 13 14.docx - Ethan Fletcer Oncology HW Chapters 13 14 Due Explain the following concepts Make sure to include all necessary

Oncology HW- Chapters 13 14.docx - Ethan Fletcer Oncology...

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Ethan Fletcer Oncology HW Chapters 13 & 14 Due 12/4/18 Explain the following concepts. Make sure to include all necessary signaling mechanisms used. Make sure to explain how these normal cellular concepts are directly related to transformation of cancer or metastases. The interdependent cell types necessary for the formation of epithelial tissues. o Neoplastic epithelial (carcinoma) cells exist, while also a number of stromal cell types exist within the tumor. These include fibroblasts, miyofibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and mast cells. Some of these cells only constitute a small proportion of the stroma of certain tumors. The process of wound healing. o Following the formation of a superficial wound on the surface of the skin anf underlying tissues, platelets aggregate and release granules containing platelet derived growth factor and transforming growth factor Beta (TGFB). o Wounding also causes a release of vasoactive factors which increase the permeability of blood vessels near the wound, which helps the site acquire fibrinogen molecules from plasma which create the scaffolding of a blood clot. How tumors resemble wounded tissues that do not heal. o There are striking similarities between wound healing and tumorigenesis. Clumps of fibrin can be found within the tumor associated stroma. In tumors, this isn’t due to blood vessel leakage. Instead, the capillaries within the tumors are leaky, unlike those in normal tissues. The permeability of the capillary walls allows fibrinogen from the plasma to come into direct contact with cancer cells, provoking the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and the formation of fibrin strand bundles. The role of stromal cells in tumorigenesis. o In one experiment, transformed, weakly tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells were found to require two months to form a tumor when introduced to a host mouse. However, when mixed with stromal fibroblasts prior to injection into host, a tumor formed in one third of the usual time. These cells drive the proliferation. The role of macrophages and myeloid cells tumorigenesis.
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  • Fall '18
  • Sylvia Vetrone

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