REALISMMeaning of RealismRealism is a Philosophy away from the world of ideas and is concerned with the study of the world we live in. It posits that all knowledge is derived from experience. Realists believe that thereal world is the world of nature and that everything that exists in the universe is matter. They hold that objects have a reality independent of our knowledge of them.In their epistemology, the realists argue that since the world exists as a matter of fact and just as it is, it is possible to have an objective knowledge. And the process of knowing is that of the mind responding to impressions made upon it from external sources; it is an act of grasping and understanding what is presented to the mind from outside. Hence, what our common sense tells us to be the case is true, and we can verify whether or not it is so by comparing what it tells us with the actual situation. Our senses are our sources of knowledge.As a philosophical movement, realism is a reaction against idealism. Aristotle is generally recognized as the father of realism. The school was however given a new impetus by an English philosopher namely, John Locke. The rapid spread of scientific knowledge in the 20thC led to its increased growth and acceptance as a distinct Philosophy. Modern realists hold ultimate reality tobe the objective world which is independent of all human experience. Realists contend that the true and desirable educational ideas and doctrines are those corresponding to the structure of the objective world. In their view of education, theory and reason play a central role. Since right conduct as well as knowledge is grounded in reality, the chief purpose of education is to enable the learner to understand the world as it really is. Consequently, the basic ideas that make up the people’s knowledge of all forms of reality, including the common purposes and points of view that characterize society, should constitute the content of the educational Programme.Realists Aims of EducationAccording to John Wild (1955:31), the aims of education, as the idealist sees it, is four fold, namely:i) To discern the truth about things as they really are;ii) To extend and integrate such truth as is known;
iii) To gain such practical knowledge of life in general and of professional functions in particular as can be theoretically grounded and justified.iv) To transmit this knowledge in a coherent and convincing way both to the young and old through the human community.Broadly speaking, there are two objectives of education in realism: equipping learners with knowledge and skills needed to understand and master their physical environment; and, enabling learners to adjust to the realities of the physical world as well as adult - approved behavior.