Computer-System Structures C HAPTER 0 2 1
1. General Computer-System Architecture 2. Computer System Operation 3. Common Functions of Interrupts 4. I/O Structure 5. Storage Structure 6. Storage Hierarchy 7. Hardware Protection Contents 2
Chapter objectives: • To describe the basic organization of computer systems. • To provide a grand tour of the major components of operating systems. • To give an overview of the many types of computing environments. 3
Computer-System Architecture 4
Computer-System Operation • I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently. • Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type. • Each device controller has a local buffer . • CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers. • I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller. • Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt. 5
Computer-System Operation •What is Buffer?? BIC20803 Operating Systems: Chapter 2 6
Computer startup - Bootstrap Program / BIOS 7
• Bootstrap Program / BIOS; – . Computer Startup 8
Computer Startup – Stored in ROM within the computer system – Performs 2 tasks: 1. scan the components in the system, initializes all aspects of the computer system, from CPU register to device controllers to memory content. 2. scan the list of boot devices (floppy disk, CD / DVD drive, one or more hard disk drives) looking for a boot loader 9
Common Functions of Interrupts What is interrupt? 10
Common Functions of Interrupts Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt . 2 types of interrupts: 1. Hardware → trigger an interrupt at any time by sending a signal to the CPU , usually by way of the system bus. 2. Software → trigger an interrupt by executing system call (kernel call) ( a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on. ) 11
Common Functions of Interrupts •
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- Fall '19