Chap22 solutions

Physical Chemistry

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22 Macromolecules and aggregates Solutions to exercises Discussion questions E22.1(b) (a) 1S is the change in conformational entropy of a random coil of a polymer chain. It is the statistical entropy arising from the arrangement of bonds, when a coil containing N bonds of length l is stretched or compressed by nl , where n is a numerical factor giving the amount of stretching in units of l . The amount of stretching relative to the number of monomer units in the chain is ν = n/N . (b) R rms is one of several measures of the size of a random coil. For a polymer of N monomer units each of length l , the root mean square separation, R rms , is a measure of the average separation of the ends of a random coil. It is the square root of the average value of R 2 , calculated by weighting each possible value of R 2 with the probability that R occurs. (c) R g , the radius of gyration, is another measure of the size of a random coil. It is the radius of a thin hollow spherical shell of the same mass and moment of inertia as the polymer molecule. All of these expressions are derived for the freely jointed random coil model of polymer chains which is the simplest possibility for the conformation of identical units not capable of forming hydrogen bonds or any other type of speci±c bond. In this model, any bond is free to make any angle with respect to the preceding one (Fig. 22.3 of the text). We assume that the residues occupy zero volume, so different parts of the chain can occupy the same region of space. We also assume in the derivation of the expression for the probability of the ends of the chain being a distance nl apart, that the chain is compact in the sense that n ¿ N . This model is obviously an oversimpli±cation because a bond is actually constrained to a cone of angles around a direction de±ned by its neighbour (Fig. 22.4). In a hypothetical one-dimensional freely jointed chain all the residues lie in a straight line, and the angle between neighbours is either 0 or 180 . The residues in a three-dimensional freely jointed chain are not restricted to lie in a line or a plane. The random coil model ignores the role of the solvent: a poor solvent will tend to cause the coil to tighten; a good solvent does the opposite. Therefore, calculations based on this model are best regarded as lower bounds to the dimensions of a polymer in a good solvent and as an upper bound for a polymer in a poor solvent. The model is most reliable for a polymer in a bulk solid sample, where the coil is likely to have its natural dimensions. E22.2(b) No solution. E22.3(b) The formation of micelles is favored by the interaction between hydrocarbon tails and is opposed by charge repulsion of the polar groups which are placed close together at the micelle surface. As salt concentration is increased, the repulsion of head groups is reduced because their charges are partly shielded by the ions of the salt. This favors micelle formation causing the micelles to be larger and the critical micelle concentration to be smaller.
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Chap22 solutions - 22 Macromolecules and aggregates...

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