MIDTERM - Pacific Challenge Midterm 1 Confucianism a...

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Pacific Challenge Midterm: 1. Confucianism: a. Founded by Confucius (551-479 BC). b. The Analects of Confucius – the closest primary source that we have of his thoughts. c. Mencius developed it into an ethical and political doctrine. d. Used Human beings are basically good. e. Ideals: morality, virtue, principles and love of arts. f. Five relationships: Father-son, ruler-minister, husband-wife, old-young and friend-friend. Women respect their fathers, husbands and sons, g. Chosen by Emporer Wu of the Han Dynasty for use as a political system to govern the Chinese state (official state philosophy). h. Study of Confucian classics = became the basis of the government examination system i. Reformulation as Neo-Confucianism developed during the Song Dynasty (greatly drew from Buddhism thought as well as own traditions). j. New Confucianism = 21 st century (The west must learn from China and China must learn from the west). 2. Legalism: a. Rule of law. b. Human nature is evil. c. Harsh laws = good behavior. d. “Book burning,” “scholar killing,” (tried to rewrite history – burned books). e. Central governing idea of the Qin Dynasty. f. Established after Confucianism as a response from Han Fan Fei. g. Individuals had no civil rights or personal freedom. h. Dictatorship. i. Discretited during later dynasties and became an independent school of thought. 3. Tributary System: a. The tradition Chinese sytem for managing foreign relations.
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b. Foreign people would be granted permission to estabolish trade and contact with China on the condition that their ruler or the ruler’s emissaries demonswtrate their subservience to the Chinese emporer by personally bearing him tribute. c. Reaffirmed their own ethnocentric worldview that they were the center of civilization. d. Symbolic, hierarchical, interest-based, implication for China, contemporary relevance e. Highest point – Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) 100+ tributariesw were recorded as a result of the vast oversewas expansion at the time of the great maritinme expeditions (1400s). 4. Treaty of Nanjing: a. 1842: peace treaty which marked the end of the first Opium War between the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire. b. Diplomatic Relationship. c. Trading Rights. d. Territorial concession. e. War indemnity (insurance, protection, compensation). f. Extraterritorality. g. Cession of Hong Kong.
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