Lecture5 - Actuators The other side of the coin from...

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Actuators The other side of the coin from sensors... Enable a microprocessor to modify the analog world. Examples: - speakers that transform an electrical signal into acoustic energy (sound) - remote control that produces an infrared signal to control stereo/TV operation - motors: used to transform electrical signals into mechanical motion - Actuator interfacing issues: - physical principles - interface electronics - power amplification - “advanced D/A conversion”: How to generate an analog waveform from a discrete sequence? EECS461, Lecture 5, updated September 17, 2007 1
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Motors Used to transform electrical into mechanical energy using principles of electromagnetics Can also be used in reverse to convert mechanical to electrical energy - generator - tachometer Several types, all of which use electrical energy to turn a shaft - DC motors: shaft turns continuously, uses direct current - AC motors: shaft turns continuously, uses alternating current - stepper motors: shaft turns in discrete increments (steps) Many many different configurations and “subtypes” of motors Types of DC motors - brush - brushless - linear We shall study brush DC motors, because that is what we will use in the laboratory References are [4], [2], [1], [3], [6], [5] EECS461, Lecture 5, updated September 17, 2007 2
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Electromagnetic Principles Electromagnetic principles underlying motor operation: a flowing current produces a magnetic field whose strength depends on the current, nearby material, and geometry - used to make an electromagnet N S current - motors have either permanent magnets or electromagnets a current, I , flowing through a conductor of length L in a magnetic field, B , causes a force, F , to be exerted on the conductor: F = k 1 BLI where the constant k 1 depends on geometry - idea behind a motor: use this force to do some mechanical work a conductor of length L moving with speed S through a magnetic field B has a potential difference between its ends V = k 2 BLS where the constant k 2 depends on geometry - idea behind a generator:
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