lbs144_finalreview - o What is a species? o How many...

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o What is a species? o How many species are there? o What is ecology? How organisms interact with their environment o Scientific Method Observe Question Hypothesise Predict Test Accept/reject Repeat o Organismal Ecology How characteristics of individual organisms impact organisms ability to interact with environment o Population Ecology Study of how and why size and composition of pop and organisms o Community Ecology Study of how species interact with each other o Ecosystem Ecology How nutrients move through environment o Terrestrial Biomes Subtropical Desert, Temperate Grassland, Temperate Forrest, Boreal Forest, Arctic Tundra, Tropical Wet Forest o Hadley Cells Weather cells near equator o Ferrel Cell Between equator and pole o Polar Cell Cell at poles o Aquatic Zones Littoral: from shore to as deep as plant roots go Limnetic: split into photic and aphotic Photic: gets light Aphotic: doesn’t get light Benthic: lives on bottom o Ocean Zones Intertidal Neritic Oceanic Photic Aphotic Continental Shelf Benthic o Behavior
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Proximate Behavior How something occurs, neurotransmitters etc o Ultimate Behavior Determines why actions occur o Fixed action patterns Something that happens the same way every time regardless of conditioning (yawning) o Conditional Strategies Behavioral responses that depend on particular conditioning o Classical Conditioning Individual are trained by experience to give the same response to more than one stimulus o Adaptive significance of deceit Increase fitness by providing inaccurate or misleading info o Self-Sacrificing Behavior-Altruism Behavior that has a fitness cost to the individual exhibiting it and a fitness benefit to the recipient o Kin Selection Natural selection that acts through benefits to relatives o Hamilton’s Rule High benefits of altruistic behavior are dispersed to close relatives and the costs are low alleles associated with altruistic behavior will be favored by mutual selection and spread through the population o Reciprocal Altruism Exchange of fitness benefits that are separated in time o Survivorship Curves o Fecundity Number of female offspring produced by each female o Why are honeybees honest when they communicate the location of food? They all have the same genes so it is not useful for them to compete with each other it is better for them to work together to get food o Does deceit occur between individuals within a species or across a species? What is the adaptive significance of deceit? When does it work? Occurs across and within species, works when it is not extremely common o Why are many disputes settled by non-physical contests? Because is both die then the good genes will not get passed on and lesser competitors will have a chance to pass their genes on o Metapopulation Group of populations o N1/N=m2/n2 o 4 hypotheses to explain productivity High productivity hypothesis: most sunlight at equator=>most photosynthesis=>more plants=>more diversity o Energy hypothesis: more sun=>more plants=>support more herbivores=>support more
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lbs144_finalreview - o What is a species? o How many...

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