Modernity-(19th + 20th Century)●Political Ideologies ●Capitalism -Adam Smith -laissez faire pg.386■Wealth of Nations (1776)●championed free, unregulated markets and capitalist enterprise●Communism - class❏Karl Marx - wrote the Communist Manifesto(1848) -German❏Friedrich Eagles - created MArxism with KArl MArxa.Criticized Capitalism: The work Increases, the wage Decreases b.Capitalism alienates us from the social character of our labor- in capitalism, workers do not express themselves they are FORCED to work for WAGES. c.Alienated from Society as whole - alienated from the social aspect of General Economy d.Dehumanizing and Oppressive - Capitalism will always lead to exploitation e.Soviet communism 1.rejected “false consciousness”- idea that people can transform the system from within2.Voluntarism: people create conditions for revolution❏Communist Manifesto main THEMEs: 1.Prescriptive Method- action is needed (THIS WAS USED BY LENIN)-Overthrow ALL social conditions - UNITE ALL WORKING MEN2.Critical Theory - Capitalism will fall on its own (this is what we are interested in - Mode of Production) a.Production is a Social Process- how PRODUCTion is organized,is how the society is organized (oppressive? Then society will also be oppressive)b.THE DIALECTIC - pushes people down a path that is marked by progressc.Super Structure- influential in entire governmental system supports mode of production and order of capitalism❏Fall of Soviet Communism- Leninism , Stalinism , Brezhnev❏Bread and Wood System - OPEC - floods with petroleum dollars.❏Brezhnev - open deals with OPEC -GOULASH COMMUNISM ❏FISCAL CRISIS- interest rates on OPEC rise, food prices rose●Democracy❏John Locke -An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The mind is a blank space. We are not born with an original sin.