Chapter 1.doc - BIO 111 – Chapter 1 I II Biology is the science of life a The Organization of Living things is Hierarchal i Atoms→ Molecules →

Chapter 1.doc - BIO 111 – Chapter 1 I II Biology is the...

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BIO 111 – Chapter 1 I. Biology is the science of life. a. The Organization of Living things is Hierarchal : i. Atoms→ Molecules → Macromolecules → Organelles → Cells → Tissues→ Organs→ Organ Systems→ Organisms → Populations → Species → Communities → Ecosystems → Biosphere II. Four Core Themes Unite Biology a. The Chemical Basis of Life : all viruses, cells, and organisms are made up of atoms. Atomic principles determine how molecules are created and interact, which determines how all cells interact within organisms. b. The Cellular Basis of Life : The basic unit of life is the cell . All living organisms consist of cells, and all cells come from other cells. - Some organisms are unicellular (must perform all functions) and some are multicellular (contain specialized cells with unique functions). c. The Genetic Basis of Life : for life to continue from one generation to the next, heritable information (DNA: a macromolecule of nucleic acid) must be passed on. All living organisms contain DNA. d. Unity and Diversity of Life : All organisms are not only related by DNA and other cellular components but also by the process of evolution. - Evolution : when organisms through the generations adapt to changing conditions in the environment by survival of the fittest, which contributes to diversity. - Charles Darwin : the father of evolution who reasoned that individuals best suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than less fit individuals.
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III. Scientists form generalizations from observations a.The Nature of Science: i. Deductive Reasoning : applies general predictions to predict specific results. (ex: due to global warming, this specific species will go extinct.) ii. Inductive Reasoning : uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles.
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