Health Psych Study Guide.doc - TERMS AND CONCEPTS General Correlational study vs experimental study(what are the major characteristics of each

Health Psych Study Guide.doc - TERMS AND CONCEPTS General...

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TERMS AND CONCEPTS General Correlational study vs. experimental study (what are the major characteristics of each) Correlational – relationship between 2 things as they naturally exist Experimental – manipulate IV, random assignment to conditions, can rule out third factors and reverse causality Cross-sectional vs. prospective study Cross-sectional – correlational, all measures taken at one point in time, cant rule out 3 rd factors or reverse causality Random assignment Each participant is just as likely to be assigned into each experimental group – good because best way to determine cause and effect relationship, rules ut confounds Internal Validity, external validity Internal validity – the extent to which the observed effects of a study is due to the manipulation of the IV and not some other factors, control for extraneous variables External validity – the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other settings and populations, use natural setting and random sampling Construct validity, reliability Construct validity – whether a scale or test actually measures the concept it says it does (ex. measuring effect of painkillers on chronic back pain, measure is scale 1-10 on pain rating, is this actually getting at pain and not discomfort, anxiety, numbness) Reliability – consistency of a measure Yoked experimental group Matched research subjects are yoked (joined together) by receiving the same stimuli or condition 3 "alternative explanations" for observed relationship between any two events ("A" causes "B" etc.) and their relationship with different types of experimental designs Confounds (third factors) Reverse causality ? Lecture 1 --Intro to Health Psy Health Psychology Psych on the maintenance of health, prevention + treatment of illness, + identification of etiologic/diagnostic correlates of health illness and related disorders Mind-body dualism Two components of Psychosomatic (Alexander-Dunbar) theory – Emotions and body Social trends leading to resurgence of interest in behavioral medicine/health psychology
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Mortality used to be more environmentally mediated (infectious disease) and now its more lifestyle mediated (chronic disease) Differences between Alexander-Dunbar school of psychosomatic medicine vs. modern views of behavioral medicine Psychosomatic medicine – every disease caused by either medical or psychological factors Behavioral medicine – every disease involves both medical and psychological contributions Lecture 2-- Overview of Physio Systems 1. Central nervous system – brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system – everything outside of CNS 3. Brainstem – midbrain, pons, and medulla Controls flow of messages between brain and rest of body, basic functions (breathing, bp, heartrate) 4. Medulla – basic survival functions like respiration and heartrate 5. Pons – arousal, sleep processes 6. Cerebellum – voluntary movement 7. Thalamus – sensory relay station 8. Hypothalamus
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