ESS205_Lecture4_2018.pdf - Midterm 1 Next Week n  Feb 1st 6-8 pm n  Locations 200 Exam Centre(255 McCaul Street n  A à R n  OI G162 classroom

ESS205_Lecture4_2018.pdf - Midterm 1 Next Week n  Feb 1st...

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n Feb. 1 st , 6-8 pm n Locations: n EX 200: Exam Centre ( 255 McCaul Street) n A à R n OI G162 classroom n S à Z n Bring n #2 Pencil!! n Student ID Midterm 1 Next Week! College McCaul St. George
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n Material: n Lecture material (Lectures 1,2,3,4) n Supporting information from Chapters 1-5 n details of which sections of book will be posted on Blackboard n Focus on material and information given in lectures and covered in Mastering activities n Structure n 80% multiple choice (40 questions) n 20% written questions n 1 page with 2-3 short answer questions Midterm 1 Next Week!
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Global Change Hydrosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere Biosphere
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Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Ecosystems need energy and matter (nutrients). This drives interactions Bigger Picture
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Matter (Nutrient) Cycling n Elements and compounds that are essential for life are cycled through the biotic and abiotic systems n The cycles of these elements and compounds are called BIOGEOCHEMICAL cycles n carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur Chapter 3
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Nitrogen Cycle n Proteins, DNA n Atmosphere is 78% N 2 n inert, not a usable form n Important steps n Nitrogen fixation n Nitrification n Assimilation n Denitrification
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Nitrogen Fixation n Specialized bacteria n Convert N 2 gas into biologically usable forms of nitrogen (ammonia, NH 3 )
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Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation Denitrification Denitrification Nitrification (making nitrate, NO 3 - ) Assimilation
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Nitrogen Cycle Q?
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The Nitrogen Cycle n Haber-Bosch process = synthetic production of fertilizers by combining nitrogen and hydrogen to synthesize ammonia n Humans are fixing as much nitrogen as nature does
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Phosphorus Cycle n No significant atmospheric component n Phosphates used in DNA and ATP (chemical energy) n Phosphates move through the food chain Land Organism Land Organism erosion/mining uptake and recyling in ecosystems burial
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Phosphorous Cycle
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Sulfur Cycle n Essential component of proteins n Major cloud forming agent in atmosphere n Sulfate (SO 4 - ) aerosols make cloud condenstion nuclei (CCN) n Effects climate n Major pollutant n Emitted as reduced gases (i.e., SO 2 gas), which are oxidized to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) n Major component of acid rain n Like carbon – on long time scales is important in controlling how much oxygen is in the atmosphere
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Sulfur Cycle
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SO x cycle acid! Affects clouds and climate, forms sulfuric acid
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Oxygen Cycle n 20% of the atmosphere n Essential of oxygen respiring organisms (like us) n Coupled strongly to the carbon cycle (but also to the sulfur cycle) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ------> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 photosynthesis respiration combustion organic carbon (reduced carbon) is where chemical energy is stored inorganic carbon dioxide gas water oxygen gas
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Oxygen Cycle Balanced by long term burial and then weathering of organic carbon (and reduced sulfur and iron species) But there are changes in the amount of burial or the amount of weathering that can change oxygen concentrations
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Phanerozoic Oxygen More burial of organic carbon/less weathering Less burial of organic carbon/more
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