Introduction to the psych.docx - Correlation= related Introduction to the Science of Psychology Chapter 1 The World of Psychology An Overview What is

Introduction to the psych.docx - Correlation= related...

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Correlation= related Introduction to the Science of Psychology Chapter 1 The World of Psychology An Overview What is Psychology? The science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes, and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare: - Psyche = __________AA - Logos = study But first… You need to be able to recognize bad science when you hear or see it Why??? So you will not be taken advantage of. Non science Thinking Common Sense ( Lay Psychology): If most people believe it , it must be true Example: - “Lie detectors” If it seems to make sense , it must be right: - My chances of beating the dealer in Black Jack increase if I haven’t won a hand in a while - Which of these two hands is more likely to occur? Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same : 1 in 2 ,598,960 The Gambler’s Fallacy Common sense is valuable as a source of testable ideas for psychologists to investigate scientifically Why Do We Believe in Nonscientific Myths so Much? - Appeal to Authority : If an authority or an expert says it, it must be so: - Movie stars and supermodels touting a new diet or piece of exercise equipment - ***A Pet Peeve*** It Must Be True Because… Unsystematic Observation: - Unsystematic observation relies on casual observations: - Anecdote s, case studies, selective reports - Fortune tellers must be able to predict the future, because one predicted event did occur. You ignore all the wrong predictions: Confirmation bias Scientific Thinking Two ingredients are crucial to scientific thinking: 1- skepticism : - An attitude that doubts all claims not supported by solid research evidence 2- Critical thinking : - What is the basis for the statement being made? - Is it based on the speaker’s beliefs or solid scientific-- empirical --facts? 5 Questions for Critical Thinking A scientist must ask specific questions in order to get meaningful answers: 1- What am I being asked to believe? 2- Is there any evidence to support the claim? 3- Can the evidence be interpreted another way? 4- What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives? 5- What conclusions are most reasonable? Who is Who? Psychiatrist: - A medical doctor specializing in psychology
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- Can prescribe medications Psychologist : - A Ph.D. in psychology - Can no t prescribe medications - Can treat clients independently Counselor : - Usually has a MA: - Two years beyond a BA - Can be in a wide variety of disciplines: - Social Work = M.S.W. - Can see clients ( supervised ) - Best for mild problems: - Not life threatening problems: - Adjustment issues Psychoanalyst : - Psychiatrist trained in Freudian theory and techniques - Usually 8 years beyond an MD - Not many out there Psychotherapist : - means absolutely nothing Subfields of Psychology Social Psychology: Social and group phenomena: - Personality - Industrial/Organizational - Psychology of Law ( Forensics ) Clinical Psychology : - Diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders - Investigate causes of disorders: - Psychiatrists and psychoanalysts Health Psychology: Relationships between mind and body : - How stress affects the body - How obesity affects self-esteem
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