Jilid 16 Artikel 08.pdf - Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan/1999 Politik dalam Pendidikan Vernakular Cina di Semenanjung Malaysia Satu Perspektif Hubungan

Jilid 16 Artikel 08.pdf - Jurnal Pendidik dan...

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Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan, Jilid 16, 1998/1999 Politik dalam Pendidikan Vernakular Cina di Semenanjung Malaysia: Satu Perspektif Hubungan Etnik Majoriti-Minoriti TAN YAOSUA Calon Ph. D., Pusat Pengajian IImu Pendidikan, Universiti Sains Malaysia. ABSTRACT This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework to conceptualize the intense ethnic assertions in the politics of Chinese vernacular education in Peninsular Malaysia from the perspective of majority-minority ethnic relations in a multi-ethnic society. It examines four educational policies, namely, Razak Report, 1956, Education Ordinance, 1957, Rahman Talib Report, 1960 and Education Act, 1961. It posits the notion that inherent in the phenomenon of majority-minority ethnic relations is the manifestation of ethnic domination- subordination. More often than not, the dynamics of ethnic domination-subordination is a function of the comparative strength in numerical size as well as political and economic leverage held by one ethnic group over the other. Looking from this perspective, it is obvious that the ethnic Chinese minority and ethnic Malay majority in Peninsular Malaysia have differing strength which ultimately influenced their assertions in the formulation and implementation of educational policies, and thus, have to be duly accommodated by the ruling political elites of this country. Thefour educational policies examined in this paper are clear examples of how differing majority-minority ethnic assertions are accommodated in the long term interests of nation building in this country. Pengenalan Pendidikan untuk etnik minoriti sering merupakan satu isu berkontroversi dalam konteks penggubalan serta pelaksanaan dasar pendidikan sesebuah negara yang penduduknya majmuk. Lazimnya, isu ini terikat dengan dua kepentingan etnik majoriti dan etnik minoriti yang bercanggah. Pertama, tuntutan etnik minoriti untuk mengekalkan bahasa, budaya, dan identiti etnik. Kedua, tuntutan etnik majoriti untuk memantapkan nilai-nilai dan norma-norma mereka sebagai komponen teras dalam proses pembinaan negara. Dalam konteks sejarah perkembangan pendidikan vernakular Cina di Semenanjung Malaysia, dua isu yang disebutkan di atas adalah releven. Ada dua persoalan dibincangkan dalam kertas kerja ini. Pertama, bagaimanakah kedua-dua isu ini ditangani? Kedua, apakah rasional yang mendasari penyelesaian isu-isu ini? Kertas kerja ini berfokus pada penggubalan dan pelaksanaan Laporan Razak 1956, Ordinan Pelajaran 1957, Laporan Rahman Talib 1960, dan Akta Pelajaran 1961. 115
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Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan, Jilid 16, 199811999 Latar Belakang Pembentukan masyarakat majmuk di Tanah Melayu telah banyak dikaji dan didokumentasikan (Freeman,1960; Purcell,1965;1967). Memadai disebut di sini bahawa kedatangan imigran-imigran Cina dan India secara berarnai-ramai ke rant au ini pada awal abad ke 20 akibat dasar penjajah Inggeris, merupakan punca utama yang menyebabkan pembentukan masyarakat majmuk di Tanah Melayu.Tatkala negara ini mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun 1957, komposisi tiga etnik utama di negara ini ialah 49.8% Melayu, 37.2% Cina,
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