Module 4 in Chemistry 1.docx - Module 4 Atomic Constitution of Matter Objectives o To understand the major aspects of the historical development of

Module 4 in Chemistry 1.docx - Module 4 Atomic Constitution...

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Module 4 Atomic Constitution of Matter Objectives o To understand the major aspects of the historical development of theories of atomic structure. o To understand what is meant by the term energy level and to be able to tell what the maximum number of electrons is for each energy level. o To be able to tell the maximum number of electrons for each type of sublevel. Discussion Atom - the smallest particle of an element, which can take part in chemical reactions. Taken from the Greek word meaning “atomos” – cannot be divided or indivisible. A substance the size of pinhead contains billions of atoms! Democritus (Greek philosopher, 400 BC) – maintained that repeated division of matter would eventually lead to minute, hard bits of matter – so small as to render them invisible – with form, size and weight. John Dalton – use the old atomic hypothesis of Democritus on a useful scientific basis, who in 1803 developed the concept of atomic weights.
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Modern Concept: (Dalton’s Atomic Theory) 1. The smallest particles of an element, which can take part in the chemical reaction, is atom. This cannot be subdivided nor changed into another by any another or physical means. 2. Atoms of a particular element all have the same properties (size, shape, mass) different from those of other element. 3. Atoms of an element combine with one another to form a molecule of that element while atom of different elements combine to form a molecule of a compound. 4. Chemical combination results from the union of different atoms in simple numerical properties such as 1:2, 2:1, 2:1:4, etc.
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