2402 Ch 18_students (1).pptx - Ch 18 Objectives Functions Characteristics Components – Plasma formed elements Stages of hematopoiesis Classification

2402 Ch 18_students (1).pptx - Ch 18 Objectives Functions...

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Ch 18 Objectives Functions Characteristics Components – Plasma, formed elements Stages of hematopoiesis Classification of WBCs Function Blood groups Hemostasis Clinical applications and disorders 1
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2 Chapter 18 Cardiovascular System: Blood Hematology Cells immersed in body fluids: Blood - Plasma - Formed elements (cells) Interstitial fluid
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3 Functions of Blood Transportation Regulation Body pH Body temp Fluid balance - H 2 O content of cells - BP Protection Blood loss Immunity - 1_1/Lymphocyte.html
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4 Physical Characteristics of Blood ~8% body weight More viscous than water
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5 Components of Blood Centrifuge
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6 Components of Blood: Plasma >90% water ~7% proteins ~2% other solutes Maintain blood osmotic pressure Forms Ag-Ab complexes
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Common Electrolytes in Plasma 7
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Common Nutrients in Plasma 8
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9 Blood: Formed Elements RBC (erythrocyte) WBC (leukocyte) Granular leukocytes - neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil Agranular leukocytes - lymphocyte = T, B & NK cell, monocyte Platelet (thrombocyte) megakaryocyte Blood Smear
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10 Hematopoie sis --Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell=hemocytoblas t --Myeloid stem cells -Erythroblast  reticulocyte  RBC -Megakaryoblast  megakaryocyte  proplatelet  platelet -Granulocytes (PMN, basophil, eosinophil)
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11 Hemopoietic Growth Factors Regulate differentiation & proliferation Erythropoietin (EPO) - Incr. # RBC precursors - Triggered by hypoxia Thrombopoietin (TPO) - Incr. # platelet precursors Cytokines - Incr. # of WBC precursors i. colony-stimulating factor (CSF) ii. interleukin (IL) Recombinant DNA advances Mass produce growth factors Kidney disease; cancer
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12 Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Biconcave disk Increases surface area:volume ratio HgB  Transports O 2 & CO 2 Spectrin  flexible protein Anucleate  amitotic Shape of a RBC
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13 Hemoglobin: Structure & Fxn Globin protein consists of 4 polypeptide (2 a, 2 b ) 1 heme attached to each polypeptide  heme contains iron  binds 1 oxygen Oxyhemoglobin Deoxyhemoglobin Carbaminohemoglobin Myoglobin Stores O 2 in muscle cells
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14 Formation and Destructio n of RBC s: Recycling of HgB
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15 Erythropoiesis: Production of RBC Stimulus for RBC production is hypoxia Requires protein, lipids, CHO, iron, vB 12 , folic acid Three phases in developmental pathway Reticulocyte  Erythrocyte - Reticulocyte count = Diagnostic test ~1% of all RBCs
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Erythropoietin Mechanism 16
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17 Erythrocyte Disorders Polycythemia Rxn to chronically low O 2 levels - Smoking, malignancy, disease - Erythrocytosis – EPO high Induced polycythemia - Blood doping i.
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