CNS.PAIN.ADRENERGICS.CHOLINERGICS.ANES.pdf - INTRODUCTION Pharmacology II INTRODUCTION ew/II/2016 1 ew/II/2016 5 Branches of Pharmacology • • •


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6/13/2016 1 Pharmacology II INTRODUCTION 1 ew/II/2016 INTRODUCTION 2 ew/II/2016 5 Branches of Pharmacology Pharmacognosy - Origin Pharmacokinetics - Movement through Body Pharmacodynamics - Effect Pharmacotherapeutics - Use/Purpose Toxicology -Side Effects 3 ew/II/2016 Pharmacokinetics Absorption - Depends on route Enteral - GI system (p.o., SL, PR) Parenteral - Injected (ID, SQ, IM, IV) Distribution Metabolism Excretion 4 ew/II/2016 5 ew/II/2016 Pros and Cons of Routes of Administration Route Advantages Disadvantages Oral Easy, IR and SR formulations Inexpensive Well tolerated Lower bioavailability Intravenous Highest bioavailability Rapid onset Not limited by volumes Higher cost IV access required Manpower Risk of infection Subcutaneous High bioavailability No venous access required Infusion limited to <4ml Induration at site Higher cost 6 ew/II/2016
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6/13/2016 2 Pros and Cons of Routes of Administration Advantages Disadvantages Transdermal Easy to administer Long half life Long duration No rapid titration Side effects not quickly reversible Skin irritation Transmucosal High bioavailability Quick onset Cost Only fentanyl available Short Acting Rectal Higher bioavailability vs. oral formulations Can use long acting formulations Less attractive role for some individuals 7 ew/II/2016 Drug classifications Pharmacologic Classification Similar Characteristics Similar Chemical Make up examples: Penicillins, Beta Blockers Therapeutic Classification Used for similar effect May not have similar chemical make up Examples: Antihypertensives, Antibiotics 8 ew/II/2016 General points to note Know the routes of administration and efficacy of each route Understand aspects of medication safety 5 rights of medication administration Critical thinking skills will be assessed (case scenarios) 9 ew/II/2016 Students to know: Doses, dosing intervals and scheduling of drugs. Know Drug potency Therapeutic index Maximum effect Latency Time of maximum effect Duration of action 10 ew/II/2016 DRUGS AFFECTING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 11 ew/II/2016 Note: For each system, understand the anatomy and physiology Know the pathophysiology of the disease process in that system Familiarize yourself with the prototype drug(s) in each system Review these notes in conjunction with your DLM module 12 ew/II/2016
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6/13/2016 3 Drugs affecting the Central Nervous System OBJECTIVES Describe the process of neurotransmission Describe major neurotransmitters and their roles in CNS functioning Discuss general types and characteristics of CNS depressant drugs 13 ew/II/2016 Drugs affecting the Central Nervous System This section will review the following groups of drugs: Analgesics General and local anesthetics CNS depressants and muscle relaxants Antiepileptic agents Antiparkinsonian agents Psychotherapeutic agents CNS stimulants 14 ew/II/2016 Drugs affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Adrenergic agents Adrenergic blocking agents
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