Notes for Criminology.pdf - 1 Criminology Criminology includes the study of all aspects of crime and law enforcement—criminal psychology the social

Notes for Criminology.pdf - 1 Criminology Criminology...

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1 Criminology Criminology includes the study of all aspects of crime and law enforcement—criminal psychology, the social setting of crime, prohibition and prevention, investigation and detection, capture and punishment. Thus, many of the people involved—legislators, social workers, probation officers, judges, etc.—could possibly be considered criminologists , though the word usually refers only to scholars and researchers. Criminology enterprise: the various sub-areas included within the scholarly discipline of criminology that, taken as a whole, define the field of study. Classical criminology: the theoretical perspective suggesting that (1) people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviours (2) people choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or personal need (3) crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions. Sociological criminology: an approach to criminology, based on the work of Quetelet and Durkheim, that focuses on the relationship between social factors and crime. What Criminologists Do? The Criminological Enterprise: - Criminal Statistics/ Crime Management - Involves calculating the amount and trends of criminal activity - Focuses on creating valid and reliable measures of criminal behavior to: measures of criminal behaviour to analyze activities of police and court agencies - Measures criminal activity not reported to the police by victims - Identify the victims of crime - Test theory Sociology of Law and Society/Socio-Legal Studies: - Concerned with the role social forces play in shaping criminal law - Concerned with the role of criminal law in shaping society - Activities of criminologist interested in socio-legal studies : Investigating the history of legal thought conducting research to determine the effects of proposed laws Developing Theories of Crime Causations:
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2 - Psychological: Crime as a function of personality, development, social learning, or cognition - Biological: Antisocial behavior as a function of biochemical, genetic, and neurological factors Sociological: - Criminal behaviour as a product of social forces including neighborhood conditions, poverty, socialization, and group interaction - Criminologists may use innovative methods to test theory Understanding and Describing Criminal Behavior: - Focus fifty years ago: rape, murder, burglary - Focus currenctly: stalking, cyber crime, terrorism, hate crimes Definitions to Know: - Criminal justice: The agencies of social control, such as police departments, the courts, and correctional institutions, that handle criminal offenders - Deviance: Behavior that departs from the social norm but it is not necessarily criminal - Crime: An act, deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under the criminal law Definitions continued: Decriminalization: having criminal penalties reduced rather than eliminated Criminal Law: Written code that defines crimes and their punishments Common law early English law, developed by judges, which became standardized law of the
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  • Spring '11
  • Krause

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