Unformatted text preview: Guided Reading: Mod. 6 Correlation and Experimentation pgs:46-55 AP Psych/Imbesi NAME: ___________________________________________________ PER: ________
Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms you will encounter. You may wish to
pretend these terms do not exist, but they do & you are excepted to know them. KEY TERMS: PART I: 6.1
1. correlation placebo effect experimental group random assignment illusory correlation correlation coefficient independent variable double-blind procedure experiment dependent variable
validity scatterplot confounding variable Answer the following questions/prompts. List two examples of a positive correlation between two variables. The first example should be from the text and the
second example should be from your life. As the height in centimeters goes up, the height in inches goes up.
As the amount of sleep I goes goes up, my productivity goes up.
2. List two examples of a negative correlation between two variables. The first example should be from the text and the
second example should be from your life. As height increases, the top-of-head to ceiling distances goes down.
As my class levels increase, my free time decreases.
3. How is a scatterplot used to represent correlations between two variables? Scatter plots show how much one variable is affected by another by plotting them against each
other. The relationship between two variables is called their correlation .
4. The text refers to a New York Times headline that states U.S. counties with high gun ownership rates tend to have high
a. Is this a positive or negative correlation? positive b. Why is the correlation positive or negative? the correlation is positive because as gun ownership rates rise, murder rates also
5. Draw a scatterplot below that would support your answer in #4. Be sure to correctly label the x- and y-axis. murder rate gun ownership percentage
The text states that self-esteem correlates negatively with depression.
a. Which of the following scatterplots could support that statement? Risk of Depression 6. 1. 2. b. Based on the two scatterplots above, is it possible
to say that low self-esteem causes depression? Why or
why not? The data is inconsistent as there seems to be a
negative correlation in one scatterplot, while there
is no correlation in the other: no. Risk of Depression Self-esteem
Self-esteem PART II: 6.2
7. What is an illusory correlation? Give a example of an illusory correlation. Illusory correlation is to the phenomenon of relating two unrelated
Because you got sick playing with Steve, you think Steve is cursed.
8. Why should researchers (and people in general) be careful of illusory correlations? When we notice random coincidences, we may forget they are random and instead see them
as correlation. It is important to have multimodal data to back up our claims/conclusions.
PART III: 6.3
9. A high school track coach is interested in the impact of carbohydrate consumption on running times in her athletes.
She asks half of her team to eat a huge pasta dinner the night before a big meet and asks the other half of her team to
eat a large steak and no carbohydrates. Identify the variables in this experiment.
• Independent variable: carbohydrate consumption • Dependent variable: running times 10. Decide whether a correlation study can answer the questions below and respond “yes” or “no” to each question. Do
not try to answer the question itself. For the questions that can be studied scientifically, identify what the independent
and dependent variables would be in the experiment.
• Do people talk more after they have eaten than they do when they are hungry? no
• Does jogging lead to a positive mental attitude? yes
time spent jogging, average positive score • Are the incomes of doctors related to the grades they make in medical school? • Which emotion is stronger, love or anger? • Will people be more moral in the year 2020 than they are now? yes
gpa, salary no no 11. How do random sampling (from Module 5) and random assignment differ? Random sampling is the first step in selecting a population to study and you get a test group
representative of that population.
Random assignment is how the participants in the experiment or
control group are selected and is representative as well with each
participant having an equal change of being in either group Answers to multiple- choice questions: 1. A 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. D ...
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- Spring '16