GCNU310A_Notes_Lecturer (3).docx - ITE3706/ITE3707 Foundation Mathematics II(A/II(B GCNU310A – Notes Unit Title Discuss various matters and issues

GCNU310A_Notes_Lecturer (3).docx - ITE3706/ITE3707...

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ITE3706/ITE3707 Foundation Mathematics II(A)/II(B) GCNU310A – Notes Unit Title Discuss various matters and issues related to conducting a statistical survey Unit Code GCNU310A 1 Data Sources Primary Data: Data that are collected at first hand for the purpose of a particular statistical ( 統計的 ) enquiry ( 調查 ). E.g. Census ( 人口普查 ) of population by government. Secondary Data: Data that are being used for some purpose other than that for which they were originally collected. E.g. A company uses published statistics from government to estimate his business growth. 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of using secondary data Advantages Disadvantages Quick, convenient ( 方便的 ) and less costly: Different sources: Using secondary data can give us access to otherwise-unavailable sources Ready to use Preview: Secondary data allows the researcher to extend the 'time base' of their study by providing data about the earlier state of the system being studied. Collected for a different purpose, may violate ( 違犯 ) personal privacy ( 私隱 ) ordinance Collected for a different purpose, may not fit the purpose of survey Information out dated Accuracy ( 準確 ): unknown sources of error/bias ( 偏見 ) Limitations ( 限制 ) of representativeness ( 代表 ) and validity( 正確 ) Limitations of documents p. 1 of 13
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ITE3706/ITE3707 Foundation Mathematics II(A)/II(B) GCNU310A – Notes 3 Examples of Data Sources Primary Sources Secondary Sources questionnaires ( 問卷 ) interviews ( 面試 ) focus group interviews observation ( 觀察 ) case-studies ( 個案研究 ) portfolios experiments( 實驗 ) Published Statistics ( 統計 出版物 ): Official statistics ( 官方統計 ), digests & abstracts( 摘要 ) Electronic ( 電子 ) Sources: e.g. from search engines ( 尋器 ) Documents: data supplied by a marketing organization, annual company reports ( 公司年 ), personal diaries ( ) 4 Data Collection Methods Direct Observation Examples Suppose you wish to know how people behave ( 行為 ) counting the number of cars passing a tunnel ( ) Advantages: Actual ( 實際的 ) situation ( 情況 ): the actual actions or habits ( ) of person are observed No disturbance ( 打擾 ): the method is applicable when it is undesirable ( 討厭的 ) for people to know an experiment is taking place; Disadvantages: Skill required: result of observation depend on the skill of the observer; No opinion: opinions and attitudes cannot be obtained by observation; Lengthy period: some actions cannot be obtained by 'one-time' observation, but by a continuous and lengthy period of observation; Expensive: it would be expensive to tie up ( 繫住 ) personnel in such tasks. p. 2 of 13
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ITE3706/ITE3707 Foundation Mathematics II(A)/II(B) GCNU310A – Notes Interview Interviews are conducted by asking the interviewee a series of questions. It is a widely used survey technique in social surveys. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a shopping centre, or some other agreed place.
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