FSC NOTES .pdf - Forensic Sciences Notes Science and the Legal system Science and the legal system ● Definition ​Scientific study and evaluation of

FSC NOTES .pdf - Forensic Sciences Notes Science and the...

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Forensic Sciences Notes Science and the Legal system Science and the legal system Definition: Scientific study and evaluation of physical evidence in the commission of crimes Science dealings with the detection of crime and apprehension of criminals History of Policing Police: body enforcing law and maintaining order Comes from French word policie: ‘to keep order’ Greek word for police is astynomia, noun consisting of asty (city) and nomos (law) First used in 5th century BC Police Forces Police force: A constituted body of persons empowered by state to enforce law, protect property, and limit civil disorder Powers include legitimized use of force Modern police forces: task of police as ‘ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and private individuals, etc..’ Created by the government of King Louis XIV (14th) in 1667 to police city of Paris, then Europe Defined Examples of modern police forces: City of Glasgow Police (1800) Surete in Paris (1810) Metropolitan Police in London (1829) Considered as the template for North American Police Forces that followed European trend Royal Irish Constabulary (1822) The first time these forces were responsible for patrolling the streets, maintaining a public presence, and investigating the crime as part of a professional service Sir Robert Peel Educated at Harrow Oxford 1809 - became member of parliament Later appointed undersecretary for war and colonies Accepted position of chief secretary for Ireland Introduced Constabulary Act in 1822, 2 term prime minister in Britain On return to England, accepted post of secretary for home department and a seat in the Cabinet The first task was to meet demands for criminal code Brought about the Metropolitan Police Act and created a police force for Greater London Became known as Bobby’s boys or bobbies Robert Peel: “the police are the public and the public are the police”
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Policing in North America Benefits and Duties: Keeping law and order and maintaining uniformed police presence Railroad security Labour strikes Horse thieving Rioting Began as volunteers Recognize the need for permanent authority Developed into paid policeman position complete with formal training The municipal police force in North America: Toronto Police Force Expansion of Police Forces in North America: Toronto Police Montreal and Boston Police Quebec City Police New York City Police Philadelphia Police Policing in Canada First signs of any Canadian legal traditions traced back to 1651 1834, the muddy town of York was re-named Toronto One of the original police responsibilities was catching Yonge Street shopkeepers who threw garbage on the street Mayor William Lyon Mackenzie headed the city with a population of just 9,000 people.
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