Modern History- China 1934-89 Notes.docx - Year 12 Modern History China 1934-1989 By Alya Mahathir Political Differences-CCP Maoism→ based on Marxism

Modern History- China 1934-89 Notes.docx - Year 12 Modern...

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Year 12 Modern History: China 1934-1989 By Alya Mahathir Political Differences Military Tactics + Organisation -CCP: Maoism→ based on Marxism Promotes idea of equal society Valued needs + roles of peasants Mao had no voice from 1931-34 Suffered from factionalism, Russian influence acting as barrier Mao established Jiangxi Soviet Peasants made up more than 80% of Chinese society Land reform→ carried out under protection of communist armed forces between soviet Gov. Mao→ pragmatic; went to great lengths to redistribute land to all members of village -GMD: Jiang Jieshi → set up his Nationalist Gov. on 18 th April 1927 Jiang took title of Generalissimo as mark of his political pre-eminence + military standing Strongly influence by Confucianism thought Inspired by Hitler + Mussolini; openly suggested that “Fascism is what now what China most needs” Followers → mainly conservatives + businessmen Working class (proletariat) → supporters of GMD Economic crisis→ caused by inflation + taxes Jiang began to lose support from working class + conservative Jiang ignored complaints of corruption -CCP: Red Army: composed of volunteers Captured GMD soldiers→ offered choice of returning home or after period of political training= join CCP Guerrilla warfare tactics with peasants helping to provide food, local knowledge + intelligence on enemy movements Officers forbidden to beat soldiers Soldiers able to voice concerns, offer criticism → have a voice Soldiers not to rape, kill, pillage or destroy property Soldiers had to memorise Three Main Rules of Discipline -GMD: 1
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The Encirclement Campaign The Long March Used force to conscript soldiers→ decreased support Ranking officers to control men Not allowed to have a voice Used traditional fighting methods; attacking CCP forces 1930→ Jiang launched umber of “bandit extermination campaigns” against CCP Used tactic called “buying space to save time” → long term response instead of fighting Japanese Rather than stay to repel advancing Japanese forces, Nationalist seat of Gov. moved west Millions of people offered to follow to sustain industry + infrastructure by GMD -When Japanese occupied parts of northern China in early 1930’s, Jiang + GMD did nothing → due to GMD being more concerned with communists; therefore GMD army is south -Jiang referred to this strategy as “trading space to buy time” -GMD’s intentions: GMD military campaigns to wipe out CCP in southern base -Jiang changed tactics in 1930 based on German military advice after failed attempt at white terror tactics -New idea → GMD surround CCP in closing circle and slowly starve them to death or break their will -First 4 campaigns 1930-33 failed -3 rd and 4 th campaign had more men (150,00) but were distracted by Japanese aggression + forced Jiang’s attention away -700,00 men supported by aircraft bombing + machine gun checkpoints on every road
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