Human Biology Notes Year 12.docx - Human Biology Notes Year 12 Science inquiry(Chapter 1 Independent variable The variable which is changed Dependent

Human Biology Notes Year 12.docx - Human Biology Notes Year...

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Human Biology Notes Year 12 Science inquiry (Chapter 1) Independent variable : The variable which is changed Dependent variable : The variable which you measure in response to the independent variable Placebo : A substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs. Meta-analysis : Combines data from multiple studies. Used to contrast and to find a common effect Double blind experiments : Information is hidden from administrator and subjects until the study is over. Is designed to eliminate bias Error : A deviation or inaccuracy acquired from obtaining data Limitation : An impact on the experiment due to equipment or method Longitudinal studies Retrospective Prospective - Examine records of past events to build up a picture of change over time - Planned and initiated at the current time Control group Controlled variables - The group kept separate from the experimental group - Factors that are kept the same for both the control and experimental groups Validity Reliability - Testing what is meant to be tested - Data represents the phenomenon you are measuring - An experiment gives the exact same result each time it is performed Chemical Messengers (Chapter 2) Glands - Exocrine = secretes into a duct that exits the body Eg, sweat and salivary gland - Endocrine = secretes hormones into the extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells that make up the gland. The secretion normally passes into the capillaries via diffusion, don’t have ducts Cellular effects of hormones - Activates a gene - Changes shape of enzymes - Changes the rate of transcription and translation Protein and amine hormones Steroid hormones Water soluble Lipid soluble Attaches to receptor proteins on the membrane of the target cell Combines with a receptor inside the cell. The combination of the hormone with the receptor causes a secondary messenger to be released and diffuse through the cell and activate particular enzymes Activates the genes to synthesise a particular protein
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Major glands of the body Hypothalamus - Controls secretions to the pituitary gland via releasing and inhibiting factors - Negative feedback tells the hypothalamus to stop secreting a particular hormone, and therefore the target gland stops producing the hormone - Located at the base of the brain - Regulates body temperature, water balance and heart rate (homeostasis) - Produces hormones that are carried to the pituitary gland - Connected to pituitary by infundibulum - Hormones produced here either inhibit or stimulate hormone production in the anterior pituitary - Other hormones pass through the nerve fibres to the posterior where they are secreted - Makes hormones for posterior pituitary Pituitary Gland - Lies under the hypothalamus and is joined to it by the infundibulum - Consists of an anterior and posterior lobe - Anterior lobe is at the front and is connected to the hypothalamus by a complex network of blood vessels - Posterior lobe is to the rear and is joined to the hypothalamus by nerve fibres , does not make hormones -
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