Unit 3 and 4 Geography.docx - Unit 3 Ecosystem four components Abiotic Non-living features such as water Producers Autotropic organisms which convert

Unit 3 and 4 Geography.docx - Unit 3 Ecosystem four...

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Unit 3 Ecosystem four components Abiotic- Non-living features such as water Producers- Autotropic organisms which convert solar energy into chemical energy Consumers- Heterotopic organisms reliant on other organisms for nutrients Decomposers – Heterotopic organisms which break down dead organic matter. Spatial modelling o Is a methodology or set of analytical procedures used to derive information about present and future spatial relationships between geographic phenomena. Once potential impacts are identified for various regions and biomes, mitigation and adaptation strategies can be developed and implemented o Spatial modelling is used to project changes in land cover and incorporates both environmental and socio-economic variables. o Environmental variables take into account the natural ecological processes occurring within biomes at the local scale. GIS = Geographical Information System - data creates maps o Socio economic Variables take into account factors such as population growth and density, methods of energy production and demos plus economic activity and growth at a local scale and the influences of globalisation and economic interdependence at the global scale. Scenario-based projections attempt to take into account many of the processes and factors driving land cover change. o Scenario based models may produce a number of outcomes or scenarios based on the variables considered. Quantitative measures = Based on Numbers, Qualitative measures = Based on words World population, Affluence and advances in technology Three factors influencing world population 1. Humans are living longer 2. Population growth mainly occurring in urban areas in developing areas 3. Fertility rates are declining o By 2050 the population of the world could be 9 billons Fertility rates decline as affluence grows as 1. Improved health care, less need to have more children 2. Growing cost of raising children 3. Increased education rates in woman and higher participation rates of women in the workforce Affluent people demand more diary and meat products which increases the expansion and intensification of agriculture More affluent countries are investing in technology that will help create a greener future. Processes of land cover change Deforestation Removal or clearing of forests for other uses such as agriculture and urban development Types 1. Selective cutting - cutting down of selected trees in a forest so that growth of other trees is not affected. 2. Clear cutting- Removing an entire area of trees 3. Slash and burn – Removing a small area of trees, then moving onto another area before returning to the same area years later after new growth has taken place.
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- Brazil has the highest level of deforestation - 17% deforested in the past 50 years Expansion and Intensification of agriculture Expansion – Increasing the amount of land available to be used for agricultural activities.
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  • Fall '18
  • maya

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