CHAP22.docx - CHATPER 22 Shadows over the Pacific East Asia under Challenge Lord Macartney british emissary arrived in Beijing in 1793 w a caravan

CHAP22.docx - CHATPER 22 Shadows over the Pacific East Asia...

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CHATPER 22 Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia under Challenge Lord Macartney - british emissary - arrived in Beijing in 1793 w/ a caravan loaded w/ gifts for the emperor - his request for an increase in trade between the two countries was flatly rejected, and he left Beijing w/ nothing to show for his efforts - to his proposal that British ambassador be stationed in Beijing, the emperor replied that such a request was “not in harmony w/ the state sys of our dynasty and will definitely not be permitted.” - historians have often viewed the failure of his mission as a reflection of the disdain of Chinese rulers toward their counterparts in other countries and their serene confidence in the superiority of Chinese civilization in a world inhabited by barbarians Qianlong - Chinese emperor (Qing dynasty) - he responded to his visitor/s request w/ polite but poorly disguised condescension - rejected the British envoy’s suggestion that regular trade relations be established btw the two countries. Kangxi - Chinese emperor (Qing dynasty) Lord Amherst - led another mission to China in 1816, but it managed only to worsen the already strained relations btw the two countries Lin Zexu - 1785 – 1850 - Chinese official appointed to curtail the opium trade - in 1839, he appealed to Queen Victoria on both moral and practical grounds and threatened to prohibit the sale of rhubarb (widely used as a laxative in 19 th C Europe) to Great Britain if she did not respond but the British continued to promote the opium trade, arguing that if the Chinese did not want the opium, they did not have to buy it - he attacked on 3 fronts, imposing penalties on smokers, arresting dealers, and seizing supplies from importers as they attempted to smuggle the drug into China. The last tactic caused his downfall when he blockaded the foreign factory area in Canton to force traders to hand over their opium, the British govt, claiming that it could not permit British subjects “to be exposed to insult and injustice” launched a naval expedition to punish the Manchus and force them to open China to foreign trade Hong Xiuquan - failed examination candidate - Christian convert who viewed himself as a younger brother of Jesus and hoped to establish what he referred to as a “Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace” Wang Tao - Journalist, 1828 – 1897 - pointing to British power and prosperity, he remarked “The real strength of England … lies in the fact that there is a sympathetic understanding btw the governing and the governed, a close relationship btw the ruler and the ppl … My observation is that the daily domestic political life of England actually embodies the traditional ideals of our ancient Golden Age.” Zhang Zhidong - leading court official - “The doctrine of ppl’s rights will bring us not a single benefit but a hundred evils. Are we going to est
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  • Spring '16
  • Carl Saxer

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