CHAP16.docx - CHAPTER 16 The Muslim Empire[Ottoman Empire gained a key advantage by seizing the Bosporus Dardanelles btw the Mediterranean and the Black

CHAP16.docx - CHAPTER 16 The Muslim Empire[Ottoman Empire...

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CHAPTER 16 The Muslim Empire [Ottoman Empire] - gained a key advantage by seizing the Bosporus & Dardanelles btw the Mediterranean and the Black Seas - Byzantine empire served as a buffer btw the Muslim middle east and the Latin West however had been severely weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the 4 th crusade in 1204 - w/ their new capital @ Constantinople, renamed Istanbul had become a dominant force in the Balkans and the Anatolian peninsula - began to advance to the east against the Shi’ite kingdom of the Safavids in Persia, which had been promoting rebellion among the Anatolian tribal population and disturbing Turkish trade through the Middle east - after Selim I declared himself as the caliph, the Turkish armies and fleet advanced westward along the African coast, occupying Tripoli, Tunis, and Algeria and eventually penetrating almost to the strait of Gibraltar - ruled from coastal cities like Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli and made no attempt to control the interior beyond maintaining the trade routes through the Sahara to the trading centers along the Niger River - they extended power into the western Mediterranean and threatened to turn it into a Turkish lake until a large Turkish fleet was destroyed by the Spanish at Lepanto in 1571 - mid 1683: marched through the Hungarian plain and laid siege to Vienna - repulsed by a mixed army of Austrians, Poles, Bavarians, and Saxons, the Turks retreated and were pushed out of Hungary by a new European coalition - retained the core of their empire, the Ottoman Turks would never again be a threat to Europe - held together for the rest of 17 th and 18 th C but faced new challenges from the ever-growing Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe and the new Russian giant to the north - its political sys was a result of the evolution of tribal institutions into a sedentary empire - apex: the Sultan, who was the supreme authority in both political and military sense - origins of the sys can be traced back to the bey, who as tribal leader was a first among equals who could claim loyalty from his chief only as long as he could provide them w/ booty and grazing lands - disputes were settled by tribal law, while Muslim laws were secondary - tribal leaders collected taxes (booty) from areas under their control and sent 1/5 on to the bey - military and administrative power were centralized under the bey and the capital was wherever the bey and his administration happened to be - rise of the empire the status and prestige of the sultan increased relative to the subordinate tribal leaders - Ottoman ruling elites were Sunni Muslims - Sultans had claimed the title of caliph (defender of the faith) since the 16 th C and thus were theoretically responsible for guiding the flock and maintaining the Islamic law, the Shari’a - didn’t rly care about ppl that believed Sufism or other heterodox doctrines as long as they were loyal to their practitioners but in the early 16 th C, unrest among these groups – some of whom converted to the
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  • Spring '16
  • Carl Saxer

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