HUMAN BIOLOGY.docx - THINGS THAT HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME Structure Adaption Foramen magnum located centrally in the base of the cranium Jaw bone Small


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THINGS THAT HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME Structure Adaption Foramen magnum located centrally in the base of the cranium Jaw bone Small and non-protruding, enabling the skull to balance on the vertebral column Vertebral column Lumbar vertebrae wedge-shaped, producing an s-shape curve that brings the vertebral column directly under the centre of the skull Pelvis Broad; shallow from top to bottom. Provides support for the abdominal organs. Attachment of femurs is wide apart, contributing to the carrying angle Femurs Large head of the femur contributes to carrying angle Knee joint Outer ‘hinge’ larger and stronger, to take weight of body. Knee is able to be straightened Legs Longer than arms, contributing to a low centre of gravity. Carrying angle allows the weight of the body to be kept close to the central axis Foot Large heel bone and aligned big toe form a pedestal on which the body is supported. Foot has both longitudinal and transverse arches
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Australopithecines 2.5 mil years ago Homo Habilis 1.9 mil years ago Homo Erectus 1.5 mil years ago Homo Sapians 250,000-350,000 yrs Physical features Face not as protruding as an ape Skull more round Teeth; canines are short/non- projecting Low forehead More protruding upper/lower jaw Body weight 1/3 of gorilla Foramen more forward Brain size is somewhere between the size of humans and chimpanzees More advanced than Australopithecus Larger brain Smaller teeth Stood more erect More powerful grasp than us Bulge in speech-producing area of brain though larynx not capable of making complex sounds Brain size = 775cm 3 Walked upright Hands more robust that humans – for climbing jaw shorter and more compact chin beginning to form more modern
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  • Fall '18
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