RUSSIAANDTHESOVIETUNIONU3.docx - 1 2 3 4 UNIT 3 LEARNING OUTCOMES Examines the nations as the principal form of political organisation in the modern


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UNIT 3: LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Examines the nations as the principal form of political organisation in the modern world 2. Crises that confronted nations in the 20th Century. a. Responses to those crises. b. Different paths they have taken to achieve their goals. 3. Understand the characteristics of modern nations, the internal divisions and external threats. a. The different experiences of individuals and groups within those nations. 4. Understand the significance of the changes experienced by modern nations and the different paths of development they have taken.
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RUSSIA AND THE SOVIET UNION 1914-1945 REVISION Russia in 1914 as background knowledge Significant ideas of the period: Autocracy System of government where one person has absolute power Relevant to: Tsar Nicholas II Marxism Belief that history was evolving towards a perfect state - Communism. Each stage was characterised by class struggles concerning ownership of ‘means of production’ (resources used to produce food, goods, etc.). Believed that a spontaneous uprising would occur where the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie resulting in the creation of a classless state where there was common ownership over everything. (From Russia: Under Tsarism and Communism , Corin & Fiehn 2011) Communism a theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs. Leninism Based on Marxism, but believed that the uprising would be catalysed and controlled by a single party. Relevant to: The Bolsheviks Stalinism Characterised by personalised and centralised control, stifling bureaucracy, cult of the personality, the use of terror and enhanced role for the secret police, effective propaganda and cultural uniformity. Collectivisation Policy of forced collectivisation of individual households into collective farms, most commonly kolkhozes . Relevant to: Stalin’s economic policies.
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Internal divisions and crises The Impact of World War 1 on Russia Russia enjoyed short-term military victories against Austro-Hungary, but suffered great losses against the Germans. Most of the problems regarding the Russian military could be owed to the incompetence of their leadership; there was a lack of supplies, including food and weapons. The Tsar and his government were unable to provide and effectively organise supplies for the military. Russia could not keep up with a 20th Century war due to its industrial backwardness and parochiality. There was also a lack of supplies for civilians, and inflation occurred. This revealed that the Russian economy was weak, but businessmen started setting up War Industries Committees in order to provide supplies to the army. Causes, events and outcomes of the February and October revolutions in 1917 February Revolution Causes: Military defeats; incompetence of leadership - the Tsar also took direct control of the war effort in August 1915, making him directly responsible for the military losses; difficult
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  • Fall '18
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