INFECTIOUS DISEASES.docx - 1 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS(Tuberculosis Overview Pathogenic bacteria Has an unusual waxy coating made mostly of myolic acid

INFECTIOUS DISEASES.docx - 1 MYCOBACTERIUM...

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1. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (Tuberculosis) Overview - Pathogenic bacteria - Has an unusual waxy coating made mostly of myolic acid which makes it i previous to Gram staining - Acid-fast staining is used instead - Highly aerobic – requires large amounts of oxygen - Infects the lungs and causes tuberculosis - Divides very slowly – 15-20 hours - Cell wall adds to its increased virulence - Alveolar macrophages ingest bacteria but are unable to destroy it. The bacteria then multiplies inside the macrophage and when activated, destroys the macrophage Transmission - Airborne transmission is droplets expelled from the lungs when someone with active TB sneezes, coughs, spits, laughs or talks - Overcrowding, poorly ventilated places, no exposure to sunlight (kills bacteria) Latent TB and active TB - Can lie dormant in macrophages in lungs for years - Young children, people with underlying immune diseases – infection may overcome immune response and progress straight to active TB Risk of activation – highest for two years Increased when immune system is compromised (HIV etc) Epidemiology - One third of the world’s population is infected with TB, 9 million new cases a year, 2-3 million deaths per year - Was almost eradicated and is now declared a global emergency Causes: deterioration of TB control, misuse of drugs leading to resistance, HIV epidemic, immigration from places with a high rate of TB, rising poverty and homelessness, overcrowding amongst urban populations Control - Diagnosis – infection control measures can reduce transmission of disease by people with active TB - High risk LTBI can be identified through skin testing and subsequently treated and prevention of activation - Drug use – ensuring patients take the full 6 month course of antibiotics Curable – drugs are cheap and readily available - Early detection, identification of LTBI Extensive co-operation between public health authorities and clinical medical practitioners Symptoms - Coughing up blood and sputum, chronic cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss
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BCG Vaccine - No true TB vaccine - Related bacteria – will provide protection against most dangerous types of TB Not compulsory in Australia, only given to high-risk groups - Takes up to 3 months for BCG to provide immunity Drug resistance - Multiple drug resistance + complete resistance - Natural selection occurs in bacteria - Misuse of drugs, overuse of drugs - People not taking full 6 month course 2. CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI (Tetanus) Overview - Caused by contamination of wounds by the bacterium clostridium tetani (or the spores they produce) - Causes tetanus (“rigid and stretched”) describes the condition of the muscles after being infected by TB - Anaerobic, gram-positive - Spores (ubiquitous) found in soil, dust, and animal faeces - Bacteria produce toxins - Diagnosis done clinically – no blood tests Transmission - Acquired through contact with environment – not contagious - Invades through puncture wounds, burns, any break in the skin, bites etc Epidemiology
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  • Fall '18
  • maya

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