INFECTIOUS DISEASES.docx - 1 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS(Tuberculosis Overview Pathogenic bacteria Has an unusual waxy coating made mostly of myolic acid


This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 12 pages.

1. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (Tuberculosis) Overview - Pathogenic bacteria - Has an unusual waxy coating made mostly of myolic acid which makes it i previous to Gram staining - Acid-fast staining is used instead - Highly aerobic – requires large amounts of oxygen - Infects the lungs and causes tuberculosis - Divides very slowly – 15-20 hours - Cell wall adds to its increased virulence - Alveolar macrophages ingest bacteria but are unable to destroy it. The bacteria then multiplies inside the macrophage and when activated, destroys the macrophage Transmission - Airborne transmission is droplets expelled from the lungs when someone with active TB sneezes, coughs, spits, laughs or talks - Overcrowding, poorly ventilated places, no exposure to sunlight (kills bacteria) Latent TB and active TB - Can lie dormant in macrophages in lungs for years - Young children, people with underlying immune diseases – infection may overcome immune response and progress straight to active TB Risk of activation – highest for two years Increased when immune system is compromised (HIV etc) Epidemiology - One third of the world’s population is infected with TB, 9 million new cases a year, 2-3 million deaths per year - Was almost eradicated and is now declared a global emergency Causes: deterioration of TB control, misuse of drugs leading to resistance, HIV epidemic, immigration from places with a high rate of TB, rising poverty and homelessness, overcrowding amongst urban populations Control - Diagnosis – infection control measures can reduce transmission of disease by people with active TB - High risk LTBI can be identified through skin testing and subsequently treated and prevention of activation - Drug use – ensuring patients take the full 6 month course of antibiotics Curable – drugs are cheap and readily available - Early detection, identification of LTBI Extensive co-operation between public health authorities and clinical medical practitioners Symptoms - Coughing up blood and sputum, chronic cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Image of page 1
BCG Vaccine - No true TB vaccine - Related bacteria – will provide protection against most dangerous types of TB Not compulsory in Australia, only given to high-risk groups - Takes up to 3 months for BCG to provide immunity Drug resistance - Multiple drug resistance + complete resistance - Natural selection occurs in bacteria - Misuse of drugs, overuse of drugs - People not taking full 6 month course 2. CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI (Tetanus) Overview - Caused by contamination of wounds by the bacterium clostridium tetani (or the spores they produce) - Causes tetanus (“rigid and stretched”) describes the condition of the muscles after being infected by TB - Anaerobic, gram-positive - Spores (ubiquitous) found in soil, dust, and animal faeces - Bacteria produce toxins - Diagnosis done clinically – no blood tests Transmission - Acquired through contact with environment – not contagious - Invades through puncture wounds, burns, any break in the skin, bites etc Epidemiology
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 12 pages?

  • Fall '18
  • maya

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors