Objectives.docx - 3.1 Endocrine 1 State the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the extracellular

Objectives.docx - 3.1 Endocrine 1 State the difference...

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3.1 Endocrine 1. State the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the extracellular cells that make up the gland. The secretion passes into capillaries to be transported by blood. The exocrine glands secrete into a duct that carries the section of the body surface or to one of the body’s cavities, examples of exocrine glands are; sweat glands, mucous glands, salivary glands and glands in the alimentary canal. 2.Define the term ‘Endocrine System’ A system of endocrine glands that are involved in the regulation and coordination of the body through the release of hormones. 3.Describe the relationship between the hypothalamus, pituitary and other endocrine glands. 4.Define the term 'hormone'. Hormones are chemical substances that are secreted by specialised cells into the bloodwhich bind into target cells, changing the activity of the cell. 5.Outline how different hormones (protein/amine and steroid) act differently to change cell function / action. There are two ways in which proteins work; Firstly, Protein/Amine hormones work by attaching to receptor molecules on the target cells membrane. The combination of the hormone with the receptor causes a secondary messenger substance to diffuse through the cell and activate a particular enzyme. Steroid hormones work by entering the target cell and combining with a receptor protein inside the cell. The receptor may be found in the mitochondria, or organelles, or nucleus. 6.Explain enzyme amplification. One hormone can activate a thousand of enzyme molecules. This is achieved through enzyme amplification. 7.Explain hormone clearance. The process of lowering hormone levels in the blood through two mechanisms; decreased secretion of hormone and/or increased degradation of a hormone. 8.Explain how concentrations of hormones in the blood can be controlled by the process of negative feedback or feedback loops. Levels of a hormone in the blood may influence the release of a similar or in some cases different hormones (feedback), a negative feedback is a feedback that brings about a change opposite to, or reduces the effect of the original stimulus. 9.Describe the differences in action between the anterior and posterior pituitary.
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The anterior pituitary is controlled by releasing factors by the hypothalamus. Releasing factors travel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary in the blood stream. The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases hormones. The posterior pituitary is mainly controlled by nervous stimulation from the hypothalamus. Hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and travel down to infundibulum, where it is stored ready for release into the blood stream. The release of the hormone is triggered by nerve impulses initiated in the hypothalamus.
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  • Fall '18
  • maya

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