Psychology MASTER.docx - Eliza McEwen First semester exam prep Yr12 Psych BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES/BASES OF BEHAVIOUR Structure and Function of the Nervous

Psychology MASTER.docx - Eliza McEwen First semester exam...

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Eliza McEwen First semester exam prep Yr12 Psych BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES/BASES OF BEHAVIOUR Structure and Function of the Nervous System Central Nervous System: comprised of the brain and spinal cord and is involved in receiving sensory information from the body and sending motor information to the body. Spinal Cord: part of the CNS that relays messages between the brain and Peripheral Nervous System. Brain: receives sensory information and decides on the appropriate response and sends these messages to the spinal cord for transmission to specific body parts. Peripheral Nervous System: comprised of all the muscles, organs and glands outside the CNS. It sends sensory information and receives motor information from the CNS. Somatic Nervous System: a branch of the Peripheral Nervous System that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles. Autonomic Nervous System: a branch of the Peripheral Nervous System that functions automatically to control physiological functions, such as heart rate. Sympathetic Nervous System: a branch of the ANS that increases arousal to prepare the body for action. Parasympathetic Nervous System: a branch of the ANS that maintains homeostasis and decreases the body’s arousal following activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System. The Human Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) 1
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Eliza McEwen First semester exam prep Yr12 Psych Process of Neural Transmission Three types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons (afferent): Specialised nerve cells that receive information from the body’s external and internal environments and take it to the CNS. 2. Motor neurons (efferent): Specialised nerve cells that carry information about motor movement from the CNS to the rest of the body. 3. Interneurons: Specialised nerve cells that communicate between sensory and motor neurons, also involved in initiating the spinal reflex. Parts of the neuron in order: (Don’t swim naked around my aunt) Dendrite: the part of the neuron that receives incoming information. Soma: the body of the neuron that sends neural messages down the axon. Nucleus: the centre of the soma that contains the neurons genetic material. Axon: a thin fibre that carries the neural message away from the soma. Myelin sheath: A fatty tissue that protects the axon. Axon terminals: Points which a chemical substance can be released to enable communication between neurons. Neural impulse moves down axon terminal synaptic vessicle releases neurotransmitters neurotransmitters carry message across synaptic gap attatch to receptor site on postsynaptic dendrite This fires action potential Dendrite Soma Nucleus Axon Myelin sheath Axon terminals 2
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Eliza McEwen First semester exam prep Yr12 Psych Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across the synapse.
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