Chapter 5 MindTap Assignment.docx - Cognitive Development...

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Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1952) found that infants between the ages of 4 to 8 months repeat actions to make interesting events last longer, even though the action may not have caused the event to occur. According to Piaget (1952), infants learn to apply previously learned 'action schemas' to new objects by 8 to 12 months of age. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II is a commonly used screening tool to identify young children who may be at risk for developmental delay. However, the test should only be used to identify children in need of further evaluation, rather than as the sole means of evaluation (Frankenburg, 2002). The test covers four major areas of development: personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, language, and gross motor. Language Development Early communication in infancy can take the form of both gestures and sounds. Both are important in the development of language, even though gestures are not typically thought of as being part of language. This is because gestures and sounds can both serve as symbols for the infant to communicate, even if they do not have universal meaning or even a meaning to the parents (Newman & Sachs, 2013). It takes some time for the parts of the body to develop that enable certain speech sounds to be produced. Infants will often use “protowords,” or speech sounds that hold a particular meaning to the infant but not to anyone else, except for those familiar with the child who understand what the infant means when he uses these protowords (Newman & Sachs, 2013). Between 6 and 10 months of age, infants typically begin to start using pointing to direct an adult’s attention to something in the environment. Between 9 and 12 months, infants typically respond to pointing gestures of adults by shifting their
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