Chapter 9 -- stratification -- study guide -- ONLINE --2019.docx - 1 Chapter 9 Study Guide Social Stratification Introduction to Sociology ONLINE NOTE

Chapter 9 -- stratification -- study guide -- ONLINE --2019.docx

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1 Chapter 9 Study Guide --- Social Stratification Introduction to Sociology ONLINE NOTE : Throughout the semester, you will not be tested on anything written in a blue font on a quiz study guide . However, you should still pay attention to that material! Also, please remember that the words written in a red font are to help people using the ebook version of the textbook find the information. The page numbers are to help people using a printed copy of the textbook. Chapter Overview (p. 242) Many sociologists, including me, would consider this chapter the most important chapter taught in Introduction to Sociology classes. Please read this chapter very carefully and give yourself extra time to fill out the study guide and learn the material. Why does Macionis, the textbook author, mention the Titanic? (What’s the general point he’s trying to make here?) What is Social Stratification? Caste and Class Systems (p. 242) I prefer this definition of social stratification over the one in your book: Social stratification is structured social inequality, the ranking of categories of people according to how much wealth, power, prestige, and privilege they have. Understand the "four important principles" about social stratification on pages 242-243. All of these points will be discussed in some detail in this chapter. Know what social mobility is.
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2 As Macionis notes on page 242, "sociologists distinguish between closed systems , which allow little change in social position, and open systems , which permit much more social mobility." He points out that "closed systems are called caste systems , and more open systems are called class systems ." The Caste System (p. 243) As Macionis points out, "A caste system is social stratification based on ascription, or birth . A pure caste system is closed because birth alone determines a person’s entire future, with little or no social mobility based on individual effort. People live out their lives in the rigid categories into which they were born, without the possibility for change for the better or worse" (p. 243). Two examples of recent caste systems are the Hindu caste system in India and the system of apartheid in South Africa. The caste system in India, in existence for more than 2000 years, was officially abolished in 1949, but it still persists, especially in rural areas. The system of apartheid in South Africa was officially dismantled in the early 1990s, but the lingering effects of it on the life chances of black people there are still very profound. The U.S. had a racial caste system for most of our history. In the South, it persisted until the 1960s. Years after the end of slavery, under Jim Crow, whites avoided contact with blacks, requiring blacks to use completely separate (or separate areas of) hotels, restaurants, schools, water faucets, toilets, swimming pools, parks, etc. White people expected black people to move aside when they encountered white people on the sidewalk and to otherwise defer to white people.
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